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Lecture 2

Bio152 Lecture 2 September 12th.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Fiona Rawle

Bio152 Lecture 2 September 12 , 2013 th Etymology of Key Terms  Glyco – of, or relating to, sugar.  Iso – equal, same.  Phobic – fear or aversion to.  Poly – many. Theories  A theory is an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations.  Theories have two components: Pattern – Cell Theory  All cells come from pre-existing ones, all individuals in a population of single-celled organisms are related by common ancestry  All of the cells present in a multicellular organism have descended from pre-existing cells and are connected by common ancestry  Louis Pasteur’s experiment showed that cells do not arise from spontaneous generation The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection  All species are related by common ancestry (pattern)  Evolution is a change in the characteristics of a population over time. It means that species are related to one another and can change through time  A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time make a population  Individuals have heritable traits. Certain versions of these traits help individuals survive better  If certain heritable traits lead to increased success in producing offspring, these traits become more common in the population over time (generations) Artificial Selection  Humans exert the selective pressure  Adult male rams of Bighorn Sheep reproduce at age 6+  Male mating success is dependent on size and horn length  Large males with long horns are not surviving long enough to
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