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BIO152H5 F.pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Fiona Rawle

TUT 1Tutorial Notes Page 1 Read pg 2132 of Lab Manual TUT 2 Decoding the FluRead chapters 24 from TextbookSeptember1911Read Lab 2 Additional Info from BB723 PMDecoding the FluEach human chromosome50250 million base pairs pair of nucleotides ATCGAvg gene3000 base pairs 3 kilobasepairs5 of DNA codes for proteinsGene short stretch of DNA on chromosome two parts DNARegulatory regionCoding RegionTo get proteins coded in DNAGeneregion in DNA that takes part in codingRegulatory region tells where to start coding and when to stopHas binding site for enzyme RNA POLYMERAZEAlways read DNA from 5 3 endthe primes are the positions of carbonRNA polymerase makes single stranded copy From double stranded DNA to SINGLE STRANDED RNA mRNAPromoterTerminatorcertain sequences recognized as promoterterminator by DNATRANSLATION20 diff amino acidsTranslate code on mRNA into 20 kinds of proteinsIf 1 codeamino acid4 amino acids If 2 pairs codeamino acid16 amino acidsIf 3 pair codeamino acid 64 amino acids Amino AcidtRNA ACGUGC53mRNAstrand Amino acid carried by tRNA each tRNA has an anticodon for codon of mRNA to bind tRNA to codon Specific anticodon carries specific amino acidRelease factor releases chain of amino acids Protein can be changed by changing amino acids which can be changed by changing nucleotideschange in 3D structure Tutorial Notes Page 2 BLOOD TYPE EXAMPLEAntibodies in the body of a person with type A blood will NOT detect type A because the types it does detect it will eliminate Therefore antibodies A will detect type B O and terminate them due to difference in structureThey do not recognize A blood structure so type A blood types cant get type B bloodA U GSTART CODON IN THE mRNAMethionineSo PICK THE READING FRAME THAT GIVES YOU METHIANINE SOMEWHERE IN THE SEQUENCETypes of MutationsMissense Substitution change in amino acidNonsense Premature stop codontoo short proteinnot functional due to change in structure from normal proteinSilent Mutation When both codons code for the same amino acid so it doesnt matter which codon is presentredundancyFrame Shift Insertion or deletion of a codon can lead to missense or change in reading framechange in structurefunction of the proteinTutorial Notes Page 3
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