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Lecture 14

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Maria Arts

LECTURE 14 GENETIC VARIATION AND THE HARDY WEINBERG PRINCIPLE sec251 Genetic variation and fitnessallele frequenciesgenotype frequenciesHardyWeinberg PrincipleGenetic variation within populationsA gene pool contains the variation that produces differing genotypes and phenotypesMost populations are genetically variable ex selection response in maize To select for high content of oil do that because corn plant has variability genetic info for oil productionGeographical Variationex cyanide at warmer temp produced Different plants Polymorphism genetic differences within populationpopulations subjected to different env pressuresmuch genetic variation within many species is maintained in distinct subpopulations Geneticphenotypic variation within populationsa population evolves when individuals with diff genotypes survive and reproduce at diff ratesan organisms phenotype is the result of a complex series of developmental processes influenced by genes and environmental factorsEvolutionary Mechanisms Processesnatural selectionincrease in frequency of certain alleles Those alleles make organism best adapted to the environment genetic driftcauses allele frequencies to change randomly bc small population gene flowequalize bw pop or Gainlose alleles depending on where pop settled Occurs when individuals immigrate or emigrate from a population allele frequencies may change mutation modifies allele frequencies by introducing new allelesMeasuring Variation in a Population Allele frequenciesmeasure the amount of genetic variation in a population alleles AaGenotype frequenciesshow howa populations genetic variation is distributed among its members AaaaGenetic variation within populationsestimate allele frequencies by measuring a sample of individuals from a populationallele frequency of copies of allele in a population sum of all alleles in population
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