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bio152 lec 7.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Maria Arts

OutlineHow are traits passed from parents to offspringTesting hypothesisMendels experimentsMendels principlesSexlinked inheritanceLinked genesQuestions Mendel was trying to answerWhat are the basic patterns in the transmission of traits from parents to offspringH1blending inheritance smalllargemedium rabbitH2 inheritance of acquired characteristicsHeredity transmission of traits from parents to offspringMendel was first person to study heredity in scientific wayWhy offspring resemble parents How transmission of traits occurs Important Terms SELLFFERTILIZATION pollen from stamen fertilizes egg in carpel of same flower self pollination Male organs produce pollen grains which produce male gametes female organ receives pollen PAGE 281CROSS POLLINATION feritlization of one plant by pollen from another plant GENE hereditary determinant for a traitALLELES different versions of a geneGENOTYPE allels found in an individual TRAIT any characteristic of an individualPHEONTYPE physical appearance expresses genotypeGENETIC MODEL hypotheses trying to explain how a particular trait is inheritedMendels experimentsPure lines individuals that produce offspring like themselves when selfpollinated or crossed to another individual of a pure line pop Get one result over many generations ExampleHYBRID created bby mating two different pure lines that differed I one or more traits Pea plant was good sample bc inexpensive lots of offspring common plant different traits P parental generation F1 first generationF2 second generation Mendel let each variety self fertilize for several generations producing a true breeding P generation To produce an F1 generation mendel pushed aside petals oof white flower and cut out the anthers He then placed the pollen onto the female structure of a simmiliar purple flower where cross fertilization took placeTo produce F2 mendel let the plants in the F1 generation selffertilizeMendel studied seven traits that were variable in garden peasInheritance of a single trait controlled cross of wrinkled with round seeds so all F1 seeds are round Round is dominant to wrinkle In second generation after F1 plants self pollinate the traits of round seed are still there NO mixing or blending traits did not disappear A reciprocal cross page 282 difference in inheritance bw male and femaleTraits did not blend to form intermediate seed pheontypeThe genetic determinant for winkled seeds appears to have dissapearedwhat happened What Mendel Observedfor all seven pairs of contrasting traitsThe F1 generation showed only one of the two parental traits Dominant trait trait expressedRecessive trait not expressedIn genetics dominant and recessive identify only which phenotype is observed in individuals carrying 2 diff genetic traits F2 generation showed a 31 ratio of the dominant recessive parental traits Mendels principle of Segregation To explain the 31 ratio of phenotypes in the F2 generation2 alleles of each gene must segregate into different gamete cells durng
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