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BIO153H5 (211)

Chapter 27 Lecture

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Christoph Richter

Lecture 2 and 3 Chapter 27 – LECTURE Taxonomy  Naming the multitudes  The natural system of classification  What about evolutionary relationships? 10- 100 million species  Diversities of species Humans Have a Knack for Ordering Things  Aristotle 384-322 BCE  Artificial classification S ystem  grouping things together that don’t belong to the same group o Aristotle recognized heir similarities to start ordering their diversities Modern Classification is based on Linnaeus  Carl con Linne (1707 -1778) o Came up with  Not too different from what Aristotle started Linne Introduced a Standard System  Names are in Latin  Based on natural characteristics o Heart o Reproduction o Warm / Cold blooded o …  Now we use a wide range of characteristics What Should The Goals of This Classification System Be?  It should be exclusive to distinguish between species  Yet inclusion, so every species have a name that’s unique  Want the system to be stable  System that is universal (ie. Using Latin names)  Reflect the natural groups  looking at their ecology, geography o Want it to be a national system Classification Employs a Binomial Nomenclature  System we are using  Have specific names attached to only one species  and reflect the evolutionary relationships Biologists Do Have A Sense of Humor  Ba humbugi – a snail Lecture 2 and 3  Turbo – another snail  Kamera lens – a protest  Eubeti bigaulae – a moth  Arthurdactylus conandoylensis – a pterosaur  Garylarsonus – a beetle How Could We Show the Evolutionary History of a Species - the Phylogeny?  We Can Use a Phylogenetic Tree  To show the evolutionary relationships between species Phylogenetic Trees Reflect taxonomic Classification  Reflect the natural system that is wanted to be included as well as displaying to taxonomic relationships Phylogenetic Trees Display Evolutionary Relationships  Looking at the distance of branches, we can easily asses how closely species are related to each other Phylogenetic Trees Have Different Parts  Taxon – any groupings (could be a species, genus, depends) (Taxa is plural form)  Node  Branch – section between nodes  Root  Monophyletic group – one common ancestor
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