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Bio 153 Term Notes Week 2- Lecture 3- Tree of Life II- January 15, 2013  phylo trees show evolutionary relationships between organisms  trees should reflect relatedness  phentic approach is a calculation of overall simularities  cladistic approach: based on characters shared by group of organisms  character can be based on morphology, DNA, RNA, proteins  plesiomorphic characters are ancestral. means a character that is probably very close to the stem of the tree  apomorphic character which means far-close to the tip, not close to the root. in this the characters are derived.  A synapomorphics charcter is a shared, derived characters. they reflect a common ancestor  Monopheltic group is where you can snip the branch and the two will be connected  plasiomorphic on a tree is when the trait of a ancestor is evident on all other orgs on branches  if there is one characteristic that everyone has then its not a synapomorphy, if some of few of the orgs hav that trait then it is synapo.  monoppheltic is closely related to each branch  parapheltic is a branch that is all closely relaed except one org on that branch  polypheltic is a branch that is all closely related but is also closely related iwht another branch Week 2- Lecture 4- Tree of Life II- January 17, 2013  complete scientific name is not the domain, kingdom etc.  black death killed half of Europe in 1350  the plague was called by bacteria  cyanobacteria are responsible for the oxygen we use to breath  presence of oxygen was a crucial step, also oxygen provides way more energy then fumarate and nitrate  bacteria live in a lot of diverse spots  archea specilize in extreme places and conditions  bacteria and archea differ in a range of characteristics 1. dna associated with histone proteins 2. prescene of organelles (bacteria) 3. structure of flagella 4. structure of plasma membrane 5. cell wall material 6. transcription and translation machinery  both a and bac. can live in hard, extreme conditions  they differ vastly in morphology, mostly size difference  b and arc based on early phylo trees should be closely related according to morphological info.  bacteria can have some mem bound organelles  prokaryotes don’t have mem bound nucleus, eukaryotes do  presently archea are closer to eukarya then bacteria  famous orgs in bio- 1) E coli- is todays workhouse in molecular bio- tested for dna and rna polymerase, dna repair zymes, ribosome struct and func, transcription factors, etc..  Week 3- Lecture 5- Protists I- January 22, 2013  origins of the nucleus  protists are at the base of the aquatic food chains ( i.e. photosynthetic Protists)  protists are paraphelytic, they are not monophletic cuz if u do the snip test all the protists fall off as well as fungi, animals etc  we recognize 8 major protist linegages  euakaryotes have a membrane bound nucleus  ________ enevelope originated from folds of the plasma membrane 1. ancestoe with chromosomes 2. plasma membrane folds in 3. formation of nuclear membrane  nucleus allowed for innovation in gene expression 1. archea and bacteria: transcription and translation occur in same area 2. eaukaryotes: transcription and translation separated  mitochondira are pretty big, similar size to bacteria cell, they have double membrane, inner membrane folds inwards to make cristae, they also have their own dna which isn’t really typical for other organelles, also they divide by binary fission which other organelles cant, they have their own ribosomes, have their own genome  margulus had an outrageous idea- she called it the endosymbiosisis hypothesis- u start with anerobic ekaryote and its surrounds and engulfs a bacterium, and the bacterium lives inside cell= the eaukaryote supplies bacterium with protection and carbon compunds and bacterium supplies eakaryote with atp  Week 4- Lecture 6- Protists I- January 29, 2013  Corn is ancient. it all began with green algae around 735 mya. cooksonia pertoni was the earliest green algae (435ma), this was the first fossil evidence of land plants.  land plants evolved frm algae because 1. both have presence of cholorphyll a and b and Beta carotene 2. both have presence of thylakoids 3. similar cell wall composition 4. starch as storage product in cholorplasts 5. peroxisomes have similar structures  land plants show a huge diversity. for example, non vascular plants do not have vascular tissuee, seedleass vascular plants have vascular tissue but no seedsm and c) seed plants have vascular tissue and make seeds  green plants are monophyletic because when you do a snip test all the groups fall off. snip test we look for a common ancestor. The question is that can we do a snip test on the tree and only the green plants fall off, the answer is yes. so therefore it is mono. land plants are also monophyletic. green alage is not monophyletic cuz wen u snip it, all other shit falls off, they are paraphyletic cuz they sit on multiple branches.  how did a plant move to dry land- because of water and reproduction,  there are different openings in plants. when the moved to land, they developed cuticle which reduced water loss, and developed stomata which allowed water and gases to enter  next step was to deal with gravity, so they developed lignin rings which provided some structural support. lignin rings were hard and basically the started to line the inside. this allowed them to grow s
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