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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Phylogeny.pdf

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Christoph Richter

Lecture 2 - Phylogeny Thursday, 9 January, 2014 12:10 PM Today's Topics: Announcements: Homework:  Why and how we name  Bio seminar at 12 on Friday species at CC2150  How we include phylogeny Lecture Topic: The history of human classification of living things  Aristotle (384-433BCE) had a crude way of naming organisms (mainly animals) based on physical characteristics  Carl von Linné (1707-1778)wrote the systema naturae - introduced a standard system for naming organisms ○ Latin names ○ Based on natural characteristics,ex: heart, reproduction, warm/cold blooded ○ Latinized his own name to Carolus Linnaeus The classification system should have the following goals and characteristics:  International ○ Nobody currently speaks Latin  Each species should have a unique name  Reflect the relationships between species  Reflect natural groups in terms of evolutionarypaths  Stable - shouldn't need to change ○ Species can be named uniquely We use a binomial nomenclature  Each species has two "names" - the genus and species  They are grouped in taxonomicgroups of decreasing size: ○ Domain ○ Supergroup ○ Kingdom ○ Phylum ○ Class ○ Order ○ Family ○ Genus ○ Species Phylogenetictrees are used to show the evolutionaryhistory of species and reflect the relationships between organisms  Nomenclaturecan also be shown using a tree structure by branching each taxonomicgroup into its smaller groups ○ Ex: domains branch into x number of supergroups, which then branch into kingdoms, phylums, classes, etc. ○ It can also show the passage of time  Trees use a certain vocabulary: ○
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