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Lecture 11

BIO204 Lecture 11

11 Pages
72 Views

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO203H5
Professor
Sanja Hinic- Frlog

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Description
11 October-15-13 12:09 PM An overview of cellular respiration Two “Methods” of Producing ATP during Respiration Oxidative phosphorylation • Electrochemicalgradient produced by the ETC forces movement of protons back across the membrane • ATP synthase in membrane uses this energy to phosphorylate ADP to form ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation (Glycolysis and Krebs cycle) • ATP is produced by the enzyme catalyzed transfer of a phosphate group from an intermediate substrate to ADP Substrate level phosphorylation and free energy changes as glucose is oxidized GlycolyticReactions • Ten reactions of glycolysis occuring in cytosol • An energy investment phase of glycolysis uses two ATP • An energy payoff phase produces four ATP by substrate-levelphosphorylation • Net yield of glycolysis ○ 1 glucose -> 2 NADH,2 ATP, 2 pyruvate **Where it take place, how much ATP is produced, distinguish different types Glycolysisis regulated by feedback inhibition • Feedback inhibition ○ Inhibition of an enzyme in a pathway by the product of that pathway • High levels of ATP inhibit the enzyme phosphofructokinase ○ The product of this enzyme can be used only in glycolysis ○ Perfect regulation point Feedback Inhibition regulates metabolic pathways Pyruvate Processing • Pyruvate from glycolysis ○ transported from cytoplasm to mitochondria ○ Pyruvate processing occurs in mitochondrial matrix • Pyruvate dehydrogenase converts pyruvate to acetyl- CoA Regulation of pyruvate processing: ○ Positive and negative feedback control on Pyruvate dehydrogenase ○ Large supplies of products (NADH and acetyl-CoA) inhibit the enzyme complex ○ Large supplies of reactants (pyruvate) and low supplies of products (acetyl-CoA) stimulate processing Krebs Cycle Krebs Cycle • Carboxylic acids are oxidized in the Krebs cycle ○ H+ donors ○ Not one of them is used up • Citrate is first molecule in Krebs cycle ○ From pyruvate (from glycolysis) ○ Oxaloacetate (the last molecule in the cycle) • Kreb
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