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Lectures 4 to 6

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Christoph Richter

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Lecture 4 - September 19, 2012  Natural selection acts on individuals (determines whether an animal survives/not)  Evolutionary change occurs in populations  Light availability in column changes depending on depth, etc.  Light = limited resource underwater  Heat availabiliity due to light also limited under water  Epilimnion - layer of water heated by light rays  Thermocline - area of fast temperature change (often very drastic)  Hypolimnion - layer of water where heat for light does not affect temperature  Thermoclines o Water conditions in terms of temperature in tropical oceans don't change all that much o Polar ocean - not alot of layering, doesn't change thru seasons  Large amt of biomass produced during summer months o Temperate Oceans - changes in thermocline associated w/ seasons  In water, sound is 3X faster than in air  Temperature - warm water = faster sound speed  Pressure - high pressure = faster sound  Sound speed drops when passing through thermocline (b/c rapid temp. Decrease)  Thermocline forces sound waves to travel in a straight line  Blue whales use thermocline to make sound travel farther than it normally would (used for communication)  Tuna have core muscles that are ~20 celsius warmer than surrounding water to manaage temperature problems  Tuna also heat their eyeballs to maintain visual acuity when following prey into a thermocline (bc rapid temperature decrease can make u
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