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Lecture 5

BIO205 Lecture 5 (Sept 24, 2012) - EDIT.docx

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Christoph Richter

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BIO205 Lecture 5 - Lecture 5: What is a population? - Effects show evolutionary changes o Example of shooting big horn sheep and the decreases in size and weight of the horn in leading years o Hunters want large individuals with large horns so they shoot them so that as time goes on, the population of big horn sheep have smaller horns - So how do the wood frogs do it then? o They don’t have water in the cell o Cryoprotectant: Glucose stored in cells o Encourage ice crystal formation outside of cell o Control of ice formation outside of cells o Remain frozen in a period of time where they can freeze certain parts where they want and not freeze where they don’t want o They can’t lose too much water too fast though o Limits:  can’t be below -6 degrees Celsius  not more than 70% body water frozen  temperature drop cannot be too fast - Penguin picture o Arctic birds called Northern penguins (they’re not actually penguins though...) o Adapted to the environment - What will happen to these birds? o Immense in huge colonies in the cliffs on the ledges... o Very small eggs so the hatchlings are small and need to take care of it for a long time o Sticking the eggs to the rock so that it doesn’t roll? o Maybe the shape of the egg would make it not roll? Cone shaped egg? o All birds who build on cliffs have cone shaped eggs o Polar bears wait at the bottom of the cliffs to wait for eggs or chicks to fall down and devour them... o Global warming might affect these arctic birds because of the fishes that comes into the water in that region o We look at the impact on the population and not just on individual bird - What is a population? o A population is...  A group of individuals of the same species  Inhabit a given area at the same time - Populations have a distribution o The arctic birds are along the Canadian and arctic ridges and Alaskan area - You can study distributions at various spatial scales o Starting off in large area and then focus in more, such as regional area o Focus on the bay...but the birds aren’t everywhere...only on high steep cliffs so away
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