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interspecific comp all missing notes from the slide have been added

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Maria Arts

(Typewriter comment - negative relationship because both sexes are competing - involves stressful behaviour (stress of density) - abundance and distribution of poppulations and communities and how species interact with one another (excluding predator and prey) relationship.) Interspecific Competition Outline Interspecific competition Competitive interactions Outcomes of interspecific competition Competitive exclusion Resource partitioning Ecological niches Competition and natural selection Species Interactions ▯ Species occupying the same physical area interact with one another ▯ All individuals seek access to basic resources and so come into contact with individuals of other (and same) species ▯ Interspecific competition ▯ Predato▯prey ▯ Hos▯parasite ▯ Mutualism (Typewriter comment - species compete for resources. - limited resources = organisms have interaction with one another - different species compete for resources, have a predator-prey relation- ship, host parasite relationship or a mutualistic type relationship where they have a negative negative interaction.) (Typewriter comment - when two difference species compete, interspecific competi tion takes place reducing reproductive success (Fitness). this is a negative negative type or relationship so both teh species lose, the loss might be very large that they will hinder the fitness of both the species. - decrease in rep affects distribution and abundance. - ) 13.1 Interspecific Competition Involves Two or More Species Interspecific competition: -type of interactions where the presence of one species reduces the average reproductive success of another species -both interacting species suffer 1. Resource used by both species is in limited supply 2. Depletion of resource has consequences in lifetime reproductive success 13.1 Interspecific Competition Involves Two or More Species ▯ Interspecific competition takes two forms: ▯ Exploitation competition occurs when species indirectly interact with one another but affect the availability of shared resources ▯ Interference competition results when species directly interact and prevent others from occupying a habitat or accessing resources within it 13.1 Interspecific Competition Involves Two or More Species ▯ Six types of interspecific competitive interactions: (developed by T. Schoener) ▯ Consumption ▯ Preemption ▯ Overgrowth ▯ Chemical interaction ▯ Territorial ▯ Encounter (Typewriter comment - different species do not directly interact with one antohe r but if one species utilzies the resrouces more than the other , it affects the other species (exp- loitation) - indirect - interference: direct affect on the other species.) (Typewriter comment - ) (Typewriter comment - consumption; example - oak tree drops accorns, red squirre ls and grey squirrels eat them so does the racoons and deer - consumption of resource is utilized by MANY individuals. - preemption; example (organisms are stationary) - if zebra mussels occupy the same area, they do not leave space for anyone else to occupy that same area - overgrowth: example - competition for sunlight - trees and shading as soon as one org is larger than the other, it is going to shade out the other one - overgrowth com,. ) 13.1 Interspecific Competition Involves Two or More Species ▯ Consumption competition occurs when one species inhibits another by consuming a shared resource ▯ Preemption competition occurs when the occupation by one individual precludes establishment by others (e.g., sessile organisms) (Typewriter comment can have aggresive displays) ▯ Overgrowth competition occurs when one organism grows over another and inhibits access to an essential resource (e.g., light) 13.1 Interspecific Competition Involves Two or More Species ▯ Chemical interaction involves the production of chemical growth inhibitors or toxins released by an individual ▯ Territorial competition results from the behavioral exclusion of others from a defended territory ▯ Encounter competition results during nonterritorial meetings (e.g., scavengers fighting over carcass) (Typewriter comment - CIl ex - plants have to protect themselves from herbivory and from other plants - toxins produced in roots that affect plants around them. - territorial; eg - have some kind of aggresive behaviour - make sure no intruders come in - behavioru shows the other species that the territory belongs to you - encounter - eg; accidental - road kill and we have a number of seagulls eating the road kill - a vultcher comes in, and they both want the road kill. competition inc. ) (Typewriter comment - K = carrying capacity - if we are going to modify it for inter comp, we need to add more terms to see how inter comp works.) 13.2 There Are Four Possible Outcomes of Interspecific Competition ▯ A. Lotka and V. Volterra developed a mathematical description of the relationship between two species using the same resource ▯ This description began with the logistic equation for population growth = dN /dt = rN (K ▯ N/K) ▯ Terms are added to the logistic equation to account for the competitive effect of one species on the population growth of the other (Typewriter comment - how one species affect another species eg red and grey squ irrels compete for the same resources, we have to quantify the affect one species has on another - can be equal - normally one is going to be more aggressive and is going to eat more - so the coeff will vary -) 13.2There AreFourPossible Outcomes of Interspecific Competition ▯ dN/dt = rN (K ▯ N/K) ▯ For species 1: .N2 and for species 2: .N1 ▯ N2= population size of species 2 ▯ N1= population size of species 1 ▯ . = competition coefficient that quantifies the per capita effect of species 2 on species 1 ▯ .. = competition coefficient that quantifies the per capita effect of species 1 on species 2 (Typewriter comment a combination of species 1 and species 2 together will allow species 1 to increase in size. outside the isecline we have the populations of both species 1 and 2 that are greater than the zero growth so what we see is that the pop is going to decline - anything to the right of the isecline is going to show a decline in population-- death rate > birth rate. left of isecline - grwoth in pop because change in pop 1/time is greater than ze ro
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