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March 4th 2013.doc

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Monika Havelka

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NOTES • Long term pair bonding • Multiple systems (pologamy, monogamy) Human sexual anatomy • Males o Disproportionately large penis o Ejaculate large number of sperm  Quality is not necessarily high/motility is low compared to other non human primates  Viability is also low comparatively • Females o Enlarged breasts and areoli during ovulation o Generally breast size is large o Human species is hidden in human Human sexual behaviour • In our species there’s no correlation between ovulation and population th Human Reproductive Investment March 4 2013 Early Hominid Social Organization? • Derived from studies on chimpanzees • Patrilineal troop structure • Male kinship groups Human social organization • Male kin groups • Exchange of women • Long term pair bonding Human Sexual Anatomy Males • Disproportionately large penis • Rapid exhaustion of sperm Females • Conspicuous deposits of fat on buttocks, hips & breasts Human Sexual Behavior Human Sexual Intercourse • Marked arousal from visual stimuli • Extended foreplay • Longer time to male orgasm • Potential for female orgasm • Mutual interest in intercourse throughout ovulatory cycle Human “Hypersexuality” • Both sexes have a heightened sexual drive • Associated with Recreational (vs procreational) sex (sex becomes recreational, outside of reproduction) • status & dominance • Manipulation of other individuals • Material gain SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR as separate entity from reproductive Extends sex beyond reproductive value to variations in fetishism, & long term homosexual relationships Adaptationist models for human mating system Chimpanzee live in a promiscuous society, male dominated We turn towards monogamy according to our evolutionary history -reproductive strategy Females have increased breast size, eroticized parts of body to gain interest of the made -increased visual stimulus of breast size and buttocks -redder lips similar to libia Pair bond model (Morris, 1967) • Evolution of monogamy • Modern humans evolved hypersexuality to create strong pair bonds that provide a suitable environment to raise children • Hypersexuality = biological sexualization • “make sex sexier” Theres more intense hypersexuality within our species, naked ape is the “sexiest” ? Criticisms of pair bond model • Model based on monogamy – (cultural bias) • Centered on mating system of the Western world -(females are mostly covered/no display) Fisher (1982) • human sexuality is a female strategy to get paternal investment o we have evolved these activities to obtain paternal investment o that’s why they have persistent anatomical features Lovejoy (1981) • Associated pair bond model with bipedalism o When we stood up they were more efficient o Females depended more on the males o Increase need of parternal investment 2. Promiscuity model (Morgan) --- male promiscuity - We live in a male dominated society - They evolved similar to chimpanzee with min amount of investment, while making most off springs -females became defensive and therefore developed their hyper sexuality to reduce the male promiscuity and extra pair copulation -frontal intercourse is defense mechanism from being attacked, can defend themselves from males -has nothing to do with monogamy, rather defensive • Emphasizes similarities between chimps & humans • Both male dominated promiscuous societies in which females are on the defensive • Human sexuality is a female strategy to maneuver & manipulate relations from a nondominant position “It has always been generally recognized that making sex more exciting does not necessarily favor monogamy” Updates to promiscuity model Hrdy (1987; 1997; 1999) • Aggressive female sexuality driving evolutionary force • female orgasm -driving female reproductivity -its female promiscuity -females would like to copulate outside of their pairbond as well Female orgasm allows them to enjoy sex and in result reach higher promiscuity -they are manipulating power Smith (1984) • Emphasized prom
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