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BIO211 sept 21

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Jessica Hawthorn

Principles of uniformitarianism Present is key to past Actualism- application of modern processes to ancient system, modern and ancient sedimentary structures Mineral diagnosed by chemical structure Rock-interlocking or bonded grains of minerals Outcrop-exposed rock surface Formation: named unit of rock with specific lithology (characteristics) formed in a particular way Bed: distinctive layer in a formation or member 3 types: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic Igneous- Magma: molten rock below surface-cools slowly-instrusive igneous rock lava- cools quickly-extrusive igneous rock Tuff: rock from the consolidation of loose volcanic debris Sediments: material deposited on earth’s surface by ice, water, air, chemical, or organic means Stratum: tabular layer of sediment accumulated in a discrete episode Weathering: water, plant action, freeze thaw cycles, wind, chemical reactions, animal action Erosion: water, wind, glaciation 2 ways sedimentary rocks form-Compaction -Cementation: chemical process; minerals crystallize from solution that percolated between grains of sediment Sorting: coarse, dense materials settles first Till is not sorted, tells us environment where rocks form Carbonate sediments: often skeletal particles (algae, other microorganisms) Evaporites: readily formed, readily dissolved Graded beds: (representing slowing of current over time) Ripples: formed by water or wind, eroded upslope, sediments accumulate down slope Mudcracks: fo
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