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Lecture 5

BIO318 Lecture 5 (Sept 23).docx

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Sanja Hinic- Frlog

BIO318 Lecture 5 - Suicidal crickets - Last lecture o Fitness of both males and females are on different levels - Behavioural and other adaptations in different populations can lead to population divergence even in sympatric populations - Given the social biology of cuckoos, however, sympatric speciation is unlikely - Don’t memorize every term in the textbooks except the ones we use a lot in class - Two definitions o Adaptation: a trait that increases the fitness of it’s bearer and that evolved for that specific role (versus effect) o Adaptive phenotype: occasionally extends beyond the organism – concept of the extended phenotype  Goes beyond organism  Ex. Spider making webs as an extended arm to catch and to run away - Fox poles whiteness is an adaption to running; poles did not evolve to deal with snow; example of fitness enhancing effect - Parasites manipulating hosts o Hypothesis testing and the culture of science o Self correcting and self critical o “sexy science” o Parasite manipulating hosts and using as their own phenotype o Cadidid  Worm came out of it - Horse hair worm taking host - Crickets and their ally, they have to host some parasite worm - The worms were somehow manipulating crickets to go to water; male worm will find female worms in the pond and then lay eggs in the pond, then the aquatic insect eats the larvae worm and then when the aquatic insect dies, the cricket will munch on the aquatic insect and that’s how the larvae worm will end up in the cricket and then grow inside of it - Brought back to the lab in which there’s manipulated crickets and non-manipulated crickets - Reject the original hypothesis that crickets can detect water from a distance o Confirms that once close to the water, if you were parasitized, the cricket would jump into the water more often o Crickets were looking for openly lighted area - Thorny headed worm study - Is there an alternative hypothesis for both sets of results? o Maybe want to cool down because it was feeling “feverish”? o Perhaps because it’s infected so that it needs to be hydrated? - There are adaptive designs; they saw changes in protein content and protein express o After the worm left, the protein were no longer expressed in the host o So maybe the worm was producing the protein in the host to cause it to behave a certain way - Some hosts survive the worm exit - The worm was doing things over and above of what the host was doing - Adaptive design changes: toxoplasma parasite o Protozoan parasitic disea
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