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Lecture 14

BIO318 Lecture 14 (Oct 28).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Sanja Hinic- Frlog

BIO318 Lecture 14 - Vampire bat food sharing video - Last lecture o The advantages of living in groups o The importance of controlling for other variables in experimental manipulations  When manipulating variables, other things happen • Ex. Some predator taking the crickets on a voyage?  Have control experiments for those other things that happen • Ex. Taking a road trip with the crickets - Social interactions between individuals o Cooperation last time - Understanding selfishness important to theories about the evolution of the “major evolutionary transitions” that involved cooperation: evolution of multicellularity and the origin of eukaryotes via prokaryote symbiosis - Cooperation: living in groups o Predator satiation  So many of you that if you breed in groups, there’s a lesser chance of you being picked and eaten o Selfishness within “herd”  Murmuration  Complicated moments where individuals try to get to middle where it’s most safe o Increased vigilance o Increase in defences  Bad tasting and weaponry pooling their defenses - How animals help others o Reciprocity (reciprocal “altruism”) o True altruism o Reciprocity  Helping someone today and they help you out tomorrow o In vampire bats, cheats are punished - Protagonist vampire bat o Nocturnal ecology workshop - Conditions for reciprocity to evolve o Enough pairwise exchanges to allow “role” changes and ensure everyone “gets paid” o Benefit of receiving exceeds cost of donating o Donors must be able to recognize and not donate to previous recipients that failed to reciprocate - Graph o % of pre-fed weight vs time (hours) until starvation o Benefits are given when you’re closer to death and the bat is able to gain back a lot more time - From reciprocity to helping others…. - Biological altruism o Behaviour by an animal that is not beneficial to or may be harmful to itself (its direct fitness), but that benefits conspecifics o You do get mutualism and symbiosis or different species  Ex. Birds taking ticks off the cattles o Biological altruism is within the species - One special difficulty o From Darwin’s “Or
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