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Lecture 16

BIO318 Lecture 16 (Nov 4).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Sanja Hinic- Frlog

BIO318 Lecture 16 - Last lecture o Kin selection and indirect fitness o A rejection of the haplo-diploid model for multiple origins of eusociality in ants/bees/wasps (haplo-diploid insects) o But the basic prediction for origin of eusociality (in all eusocial taxa) = full sisters o Tested using the comparative method o Importance of distinguishing origin of a trait (eusociality via indirect fitness) and maintenance (maternal – queen – control) o Eusocialty is the description of the phenomenon o Indirect fitness  Passing on to relatives  Channel the care to relatives to reproduce more offsprings and in a sense, producing more fitness for your genes o Inclusive fitness  Every organism is maximizing it on indirect component? o No longer eutootency and can no longer reproduce by themselves - What is sexual selection? - Sexual selection (on males) o Not in context of reproduction o Not in context of mating o Selection in the context of competition to maximize fertilizations  Or fertilizations with the best mates - Guinea pig harem says ‘hello Sooty’ o A guinea pig escaped from his pen and crawled into a pen of 24 females and mated with each one of them which produced 43 offsprings o After that night, slept for 2 days - Most offsprings by a woman was 69 children - Most offsprings by a man is believed to be the last Sharifian emperor of Morocco and according to Wikipedia, father of at least 888 children through a harem of 500 women o Huge potential for males to get offsprings - Genghis Khan - His grandson, Kublai Khan - Models of sexual selection o (some of which explain the evolution of sexual dimorphism) - What Darwin and others observed o Differences in sexual selection o Differences in sexual characteristics o Secondary male characteristics o Primary sexual characters were penis and gonads  Now this definition is fuzzy o In human male reproductive organs, it’s a display organ o Large testes deliver more sperm and thus more chances of reproduction (especially important when women may mate more than once in a short period) o Darwin’s focus on dimorphism - Sexual selection on males o As fertilization success is maximized, the process of sexual selection should not end at pairing but should proceed throughout mating if males can influence this success with displays, chemicals, gadgets and other devices o During copulation, male internal organ may be displaying its quality to the mate - Biological diversity o Females typically look the same across closely related species o Males look different and with different variations o Evolutionary change is very rapid o Genetically, still really close - Competition o Female choice bit was controversial in previous decades because people argued that animals don’t have the cognition to make that choice o Animals don’t need higher cognitive skills to be able
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