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Ch 12 Textbook.docx

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Rosa Da Silva

Neurulation  neurulation converts presumptive neural ectoderm into neural tube  o progenitor of brain and spinal cord  neural crest migrate down to form specialized tissues The Primary Germ Layers  chordamesoderm push though the node during gastrulation  then embeds within the endoderm  during neurulation chordamesoderm will separate to presumptive notochord The Events of Neurulation  thickening of ectoderm as neural plate  folding of the sides of neural plate, becomes neural groove  folds will fuse along dorsal midline  starts from center towards head and tail  failure to fold properly results in anencephaly or spinal bifida  embryo is elongating and torsion Induction of Neural Tissue by Chordamesoderm  the node has role in organizing overall body plan  the chordamesoderm signals the above ectoderm to become presumptive neural ectoderm The Node Induces the Neural Axis  historically cutting and pasting embryo tissue studies tissue interaction  o removal of node - no neural tissue, no neural axis o transplanting node - 2nd neural axis  primary induction - tissue in node induce primary embryonic axis  in mammals the node requires other tissues to be fully effective Genes and Head Development  the node secrets molecules for head formation  noggin and chordin are genes expressed by node  Lim-1 (homeobox gene) is expressed by visceral endoderm 1. primitive streak express nodal which express Shh and goosecoid 2. Shh and goosecoid express hepatocyte nuclear factor -3B(HNF-3B) 3. expression of noggin and chordin by chordamesoderm 4. inhibits bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP) i
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