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Environment Term 2 Notes.docx

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CHM243H5
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Environment Term 2 Notes January 7, 2013- Mineral Resources and Mining  Cell phones and other tech use mineral resources such as tantalum  Many ways to classify resources, i.e. 1. Perpetual (inexhaustible like sunlight, tidal energy), 2. Non-recyclable- wasting or non-renewable ex. Oil, minerals, 3. Recyclable resources 4. Renewable resources ex fish, trees, plants, 5. Replenishable ex water, (others on slides  earth resocurces are non living and are extracted from the earth  replisnhable resources are: replinshable in principal, but long on a time scale ie groundwater, soil  replinshable resources are susceptible to mismangament in practice  we live in a closed system but earths resources are very large. The static lifetime is the lifetime expectancy of a resource at current rates of production and use and is hard to calculate  rock is a solid aggregation of minerals  mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical element or inorganic compond with a crystal structure, a specific chemical composition and distinct physical properties  glass is a liquid that has been quick frozen January 9, 2013- Resources and Reserves  mineral resources can be metals or non metals  much more money is made from non metals compared to metals ( ie salt, clay, uranium vs gold, silver)  native state means its just the element itself ie gold, silver, not zinc or lead  pottasium fertilizer is mined but nitrate fertilizer doesn’t have to be mined  phosphorous has to be mined as well  strip mining: not much evidence at surface, a lot of under gound stuff, diigin tunnels and shafts, quite deep, most dangerous type of mining,  surface mining: more disruption, used mostly for coal, oil, sand, destroys natural communties over large areas an triggers erosion  acid mine drainage a major problem with mining, sulphur and other hazards leak out to water bodies and than can fall as acid rain  mountain top removal is an extreme kind of strip removal, extremely damaging to to communities  open pit mining is also surface mining, often used for copper, gold, diamonds, huge amounts of rock removed for small amounts of minerals January 14, 2013- Freshwater Systems and Water Resources Chapter 12  gas is cheaper than bottled water per liter  rivers are drivers of erosion  p (precipitation) = r (runoff) + et (evaporation and transpiration) + delta s (storage in lakes etc)  water above ground called soil moisture  aquifer is solid or rock, or sand or sediment etc  porosity = open pore space  aquifers are porous ( can store water ) and permeable ( can let water in and out(transmittance))  in satureated zone all pore spaces filled with water and unsaturated is visa versa  ground water once it has been polluted is then very hard to clean  3 main uses of water, water supplies houses, agriculture, and industry January 23, 2013-  hadal is deepest ocean zone  greatest biodiversity is at hallow tropical and subtropical waters  you see a lot of corals there- they are animals not plants  coral are colonial orgs  coral are sessile: attactch to substrate; capture passing food with stingin tentacles. they don’t travel but rather are stationary  coral have a symbiotic relationship with algae called zooxanthallae  reefs are composed of stony corals  polyps secrete carbonate exoskeletons; new polyps steele on existing reef  reefs provide habitat for many species, protect shorelnes, economically important (tourism, ecosystem services)  coral reefs are in worldwide decline 1. coral bleaching- response to changes in light level and water temperature 2. nutrient pollution causes algal growth, smothers coral 3. acidification of oceans removes carbonate ions 4. damage from cyanide, blast fishing  blast fishing uses explosives or stunners to get fish for collection  extremely harmful to reefs  blast fishing is still a prevalent practice Salt Marshes  emergent plants on intertidal flats  critical habitat for fish, migrating birds; filter pollution; stabilize shoreline Mangrove Forests  salt tolereant trees with aerial roots  filter pollutatnts, protect from storms, Estuaries  where rivers flow into ocean  wide fluctuations in salinity  critical habitat for shorebirds and shellfish Occean resources  we use it for transportation  we use it for energy, i.e waves, tidal energy, ocean thermal energy  methane hydrate- solid methane embedded in water crystals. there are significant deposits under sediments on ocean floor, potential impact on climate ( methane is a greenhouse gas)  minerals from ocean: sand, gravel, calcium, carbonate, silica  copper, zinc, silcer, gold and manganese  too hard currently to mine  ocean floor mining is highly controversial  Fisheries: half the worlds marine fish pop. decreasing in size  fishing has become industrialized  bottom trawling is the worst for ocean life- scrapes bottom kills reefs cuz a huge net bulldozes across just to catch some shrimp  groundfish- live or feed along the bottom January 25, 2013- Atmosphere and Weather  atmosphere is a thin layer of gases that surrounds the planet or moon  our atmos is 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases  atmospheric pressure measure the force per unit area produced by an overlying column of ___  relative humidity is the ratio of water vapor in a given volume of air compared to the amount it could contain at a given temperature  earths atmos is layered, ie troposhphere, tropopause, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere,  weather specifies atmspheric conditions over short time periods an small geograoic regions and long periods of time  air mass= a l arge volume of air that is relatively homogeneous in temperature and humidity  front- boundary between air masses that differ in temperature, moisture and density  cooler air holds less water  warm front- where warm , moi
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