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CHM243H5 Lecture Notes - Scleractinia, Blast Fishing, Open-Pit Mining

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Environment Term 2 Notes
January 7, 2013- Mineral Resources and Mining
Cell phones and other tech use mineral resources such as tantalum
Many ways to classify resources, i.e. 1. Perpetual (inexhaustible like sunlight,
tidal energy), 2. Non-recyclable- wasting or non-renewable ex. Oil, minerals, 3.
Recyclable resources 4. Renewable resources ex fish, trees, plants, 5.
Replenishable ex water, (others on slides
earth resocurces are non living and are extracted from the earth
replisnhable resources are: replinshable in principal, but long on a time scale ie
groundwater, soil
replinshable resources are susceptible to mismangament in practice
we live in a closed system but earths resources are very large. The static lifetime
is the lifetime expectancy of a resource at current rates of production and use and
is hard to calculate
rock is a solid aggregation of minerals
mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical element or inorganic compond
with a crystal structure, a specific chemical composition and distinct physical
glass is a liquid that has been quick frozen
January 9, 2013- Resources and Reserves
mineral resources can be metals or non metals
much more money is made from non metals compared to metals ( ie salt, clay,
uranium vs gold, silver)
native state means its just the element itself ie gold, silver, not zinc or lead
pottasium fertilizer is mined but nitrate fertilizer doesn’t have to be mined
phosphorous has to be mined as well
strip mining: not much evidence at surface, a lot of under gound stuff, diigin
tunnels and shafts, quite deep, most dangerous type of mining,
surface mining: more disruption, used mostly for coal, oil, sand, destroys natural
communties over large areas an triggers erosion
acid mine drainage a major problem with mining, sulphur and other hazards leak
out to water bodies and than can fall as acid rain
mountain top removal is an extreme kind of strip removal, extremely damaging to
to communities
open pit mining is also surface mining, often used for copper, gold, diamonds,
huge amounts of rock removed for small amounts of minerals

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January 14, 2013- Freshwater Systems and Water Resources Chapter 12
gas is cheaper than bottled water per liter
rivers are drivers of erosion
p (precipitation) = r (runoff) + et (evaporation and transpiration) + delta s
(storage in lakes etc)
water above ground called soil moisture
aquifer is solid or rock, or sand or sediment etc
porosity = open pore space
aquifers are porous ( can store water ) and permeable ( can let water in and
in satureated zone all pore spaces filled with water and unsaturated is visa versa
ground water once it has been polluted is then very hard to clean
3 main uses of water, water supplies houses, agriculture, and industry
January 23, 2013-
hadal is deepest ocean zone
greatest biodiversity is at hallow tropical and subtropical waters
you see a lot of corals there- they are animals not plants
coral are colonial orgs
coral are sessile: attactch to substrate; capture passing food with stingin
tentacles. they don’t travel but rather are stationary
coral have a symbiotic relationship with algae called zooxanthallae
reefs are composed of stony corals
polyps secrete carbonate exoskeletons; new polyps steele on existing reef
reefs provide habitat for many species, protect shorelnes, economically
important (tourism, ecosystem services)
coral reefs are in worldwide decline
1. coral bleaching- response to changes in light level and water
2. nutrient pollution causes algal growth, smothers coral
3. acidification of oceans removes carbonate ions
4. damage from cyanide, blast fishing
blast fishing uses explosives or stunners to get fish for collection
extremely harmful to reefs
blast fishing is still a prevalent practice
Salt Marshes
emergent plants on intertidal flats
critical habitat for fish, migrating birds; filter pollution; stabilize shoreline
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