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Lecture 6

CLA 101-Lecture 6 - Oct 13th.docx

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA101H5
Professor
Andrew Graham
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 6 - Oct 13th Lecture Title: The Transition from Bronze to Iron The end of Minoan civilization Mycenean timing was Based on mortuary practice - Shaft Grave Era - Tholos Tomb Era - Palatial Era "Peace-loving tree hugging" Minoans - eruption of Thera, disruption of trade routes - what happened to the peace loving Minoans? - 2 arguments 1) the eruption of Thera eliminating their long distance exchange as well as the evidence of volcanic rock, mtch that of the volcano on Thera to be found on the coast of Egypt. 2) mainland mycenaens overthrew the Minoans. The Mycenians were behived to be more violent based on archological evidence, and the Minoans more peaceful due to the lack of archological evidence found (not much weapons really found). The first argument was thrown out. More aggressive cultures took over, no doubt Mycenaeans on mainland overtook Minoans Origins of the civilization are in debate 1) migration- had Anatolian practices 2) slowly grew and developed. Migration theory out the window through linear B evidence Control of Crete came into control of Mycenaeans (Linear text is proof) Origins of Mycenaean - migration (near eastern, Anatolia practices), indigenous population that developed (those were the ideologies in beginning) - now know they were the first "Greeks" as we know them Forms of org & religion came to form "Greek experience" "Dark Age" beginning/ending or just transformation? 4 concepts as to why Dark Age occured (readings explained): o Secondary civilization model: secondary state formation, proximity to older civs o "Head start" model: Neolithic began chronologically island hopping - Aegean in Greece earlier than Malta/Italy etc - Greece had head start o Environmental Determinism Model: complex soci-political org required to cope with geographically boundaries challenging geological conditions (N for farming in Greece, example) o Core-periphery model: attempts to incorporate many elements of previous 3 - importance of exchange systems with material wealth & technology Shaft Grave Era - Communal and could hold up to 5 burials - Rectangular shaft 4 m deep - Covered with slate slabs and then dirt - Marked with decorative marker - Important feature is the practice of reuse - Relationship between individual unknown- but with evidence somewhat related - Materials are treasure type contents- Minoan artisans. Ex) bronze dagger using Niello Technique- metal engraved with sharp tool then filled with the Niello alloy-from the East. - Labour intensive to reopen to add descendant - Grave Circle A & B B is the earliest grave decorated in gold and jewellery. Circle layout - Grave circle A- the latest 1580-1500- richer goods than in B. Masks on some of the men. Gold rings, figures, masks, gold buttons, gold cups (all gold), many spears and dagger. - Plain markers generally found on womens graves - Stele consisted of men in chariots (some) - Appearing to deal with a warrior culture due to evidence - Skeletal remains show elite status- the wealth Tholos tomb Era - Begin to see monumental tholos- early form of palace - Tombs similar to chamber tombs- but instead of being hallowed in ground and buried, now made of stone - Stomion- the doorway on the slide with stickman- label it - The practice of multiple burials continues - Most dominant until its end - Very few have been found in tact because of their landscape Palatial Era - Palaces of crete destroyed - Mainland presence on crete - See tholos styled tombs - Presence of fortification walls - Constructed from stone walls - 2 princple entrances- Lyons Gate approached by ramp that lead to outer court - Megaron- central hearth - Palaces built on summits of slopes - Frescos emphasize warrior culture Readings: Greece Dark Age Greece (1200 BC. - 700 BC): The Dark Age called the 'dark age' because there was insufficient writing found the term Dark Age Greece is the Early Iron Age; evidence that was found by classical archaeologists made up the concept of this era being of dark age the traditional view of the dark age in Greece has been one of decline, followed by isolation, then the beginnings of recovery, culminating in the Greek renaissance ... The reasons for the demise of a civilization as archaeologically visible as the Mycenaen have long been a matter of debate the chronology of the Early Iron Age has been judge by its evidence of painted pottery styles connecting to historical events; most were found in tombs - these tombs had large quantities of local Greek style pottery and a mix of Cypriot material writings from Thucydides and other authors are the only solid dated historical recordings that were found of the Greek colonies in Sicily and south Italy culture contact was significant during this era; trades and settlements were made; In central Greece, Athens was a thriving settlement that appears to have exerted some cultural influence; Crete was showed the most obvious trend of regional diversity Lefkandi in Euboea gave much evidence in its richly furnished graves for metalworking and industrial activity production in metal, not just iron, lead to jobs such as mining and metal working; these labor-intensive jobs may lead have lead to the nature of slavery two most popular scenarios are an invasions theory linked with Dorian invaders and internal collapse; however, which ever the scenario is, there was a significant shift in the nature of occupation and in subsistence strategies ... largely defined by a less centralized political landscape literacy arose when the Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet using it not only for business or organizations, but also for poetry Rise of Greek City-States: o Athens (435 B.C.) was approximately 2400 square miles, and had a population of about 350 000; about 1/7 of the population were men over 18-years living within recognized families o Athenians were egalitarian and declared as a democratic society; archaeologists considered these group of people unlike the models during the early state o most cities in Greece were much smaller in size and population than Athens; most of these cities were run by small organizations which also practiced social equality; some of the cities drew legal or political boundaries between town dwellers and countrymen; however, slavery was also selfishly used o states of Northern Greece such as Macedonia, Thessaly, or Epirus has little notion of an equal society than Crete, Athens, and Sparta o according to Schliemann, Homer, a greek epic poet, was a good guide to the ways of life of the heroes who had inhabited the Mycenaean palaces
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