CLA 101-Lecture 6 - Oct 13th.docx

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Published on 21 Jun 2012
School
UTM
Department
Classics
Course
CLA101H5
Professor
Page:
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Lecture 6 - Oct 13th
Lecture Title: The Transition from Bronze to Iron
The end of Minoan civilization
Mycenean timing was Based on mortuary practice
- Shaft Grave Era
- Tholos Tomb Era
- Palatial Era
"Peace-loving tree hugging" Minoans - eruption of Thera, disruption
of trade routes
- what happened to the peace loving Minoans?
- 2 arguments 1) the eruption of Thera eliminating their long
distance exchange as well as the evidence of volcanic rock, mtch
that of the volcano on Thera to be found on the coast of Egypt.
2) mainland mycenaens overthrew the Minoans. The Mycenians
were behived to be more violent based on archological
evidence, and the Minoans more peaceful due to the lack of
archological evidence found (not much weapons really found).
The first argument was thrown out. More aggressive cultures took
over, no doubt Mycenaeans on mainland overtook Minoans
Origins of the civilization are in debate 1) migration- had Anatolian practices 2)
slowly grew and developed. Migration theory out the window through linear B
evidence
Control of Crete came into control of Mycenaeans (Linear text is
proof)
Origins of Mycenaean - migration (near eastern, Anatolia practices),
indigenous population that developed (those were the ideologies in
beginning) - now know they were the first "Greeks" as we know
them
Forms of org & religion came to form "Greek experience"
"Dark Age" beginning/ending or just transformation?
4 concepts as to why Dark Age occured (readings explained):
o Secondary civilization model: secondary state formation, proximity to older civs
o "Head start" model: Neolithic began chronologically island hopping - Aegean in
Greece earlier than Malta/Italy etc - Greece had head start
o Environmental Determinism Model: complex soci-political org required to cope with
geographically boundaries challenging geological conditions (N for farming in Greece,
example)
o Core-periphery model: attempts to incorporate many elements of previous 3 -
importance of exchange systems with material wealth & technology
Shaft Grave Era
- Communal and could hold up to 5 burials
- Rectangular shaft 4 m deep
- Covered with slate slabs and then dirt
- Marked with decorative marker
- Important feature is the practice of reuse
- Relationship between individual unknown- but with evidence somewhat
related”
- Materials are treasure type contents- Minoan artisans. Ex) bronze dagger
using Niello Technique- metal engraved with sharp tool then filled with the Niello
alloy-from the East.
- Labour intensive to reopen to add descendant
- Grave Circle A & B B is the earliest grave decorated in gold and jewellery.
Circle layout
- Grave circle A- the latest 1580-1500- richer goods than in B. Masks on some
of the men. Gold rings, figures, masks, gold buttons, gold cups (all gold), many
spears and dagger.
- Plain markers generally found on womens graves
- Stele consisted of men in chariots (some)
- Appearing to deal with a warrior culture due to evidence
- Skeletal remains show elite status- the wealth
Tholos tomb Era
- Begin to see monumental tholos- early form of palace
- Tombs similar to chamber tombs- but instead of being hallowed in ground
and buried, now made of stone
- Stomion- the doorway on the slide with stickman- label it
- The practice of multiple burials continues
- Most dominant until its end
- Very few have been found in tact because of their landscape
Palatial Era
- Palaces of crete destroyed
- Mainland presence on crete
- See tholos styled tombs
- Presence of fortification walls
- Constructed from stone walls
- 2 princple entrances- Lyons Gate approached by ramp that lead to outer
court
- Megaron- central hearth
- Palaces built on summits of slopes
- Frescos emphasize warrior culture
Readings:
Greece
Dark Age Greece (1200 BC. - 700 BC):
The Dark Age called the 'dark age' because there was insufficient
writing found
the term Dark Age Greece is the Early Iron Age; evidence that was
found by classical archaeologists made up the concept of this era
being of “dark age”
“the traditional view of the „dark age‟ in Greece has been one of
decline, followed by isolation, then the beginnings of recovery,