Lecture 7 - Oct 20th
Lecture Title: The Rise of the Polis and City-State
The Rise of the Polis and City-State
o Depopulation, end of Mycenaean culture long & complex.
o Quality of goods at graves in Perati high & frequent - imported
objects from near east as well.
o Perati not an isolated examples, Rhodes as well, links across
Aegean stronger at beginning of 12th century.
o Relocation of populations away from coast back to hills (on
o Karphi - similar to earlier Minoan settlements, single storey
houses, 3500 approx.
o Burials at Karphi similar to Mycenaean cultural burials.
o 1000 BC, Karphi & Perati go out of use.
o 320 down to 40 sites used by this time.
o Greece 8th & 7th century don't tell where people are moving to
during "dark age".
o Transition from "Age of Heroes" to later Greek world found in 5th
o Begins in north, migrate southwards for all 3 major migrations
(according to Usidides).
o Political setup not transferred from mainland (Mycenaean).
o Decrease in identifiable settlements, plausible that didn't leave
o Lefkandi provides most graphic account of what happened.
o Richest, most progressive site in Greece at this time
(abandonment at end of 8th century), originally Mycenaean at
end of 12th abandoned.
o Peristyle of wooden posts used at Heroon - not Mycenaean
o Whoever was buried at Lefkandi was very powerful - one family
exploited rest of society.
o Evidence for external contact not apparent, Lefkandi alone.
o Became a cemetery 100 years after Lefkandi became occupied.
o Contents, pots from Athens (many), Athenian style cremation,
weapons, prestige beads from Thessaly, local gold - no single
family dominated area now.
o Wealth not narrowly distributed.
o 10th-9th century Megaron found from this period.
o Pottery made in Lefkandi makes it all the way to Rehov
(Palestine). o Black-figure pottery - style of ancient Greek pottery w/
black silhouettes on red background, came from Corinth in 7th C
BCE; replaced by Red-figure pottery w/ red silhouettes on a black
background in; came from Athens in 6th C BCE and lasted until
3rd C BCE.
900 everything packed into pot during burial.
800 - everything changes in Athens, cremations stop, fewer
grave goods deposited, pots displays fewer variations in shape
Elaborately decorated, monumental size for pots that are grave
725 - children buried alongside adults for first time, no grave
goods, offering trenches, not everyday items.
700 (Archaic) cremation resumes - involves burning of corpse
in the burial site (totally different from 100 years earlier) all
offering are in trenches, only burial in cemeteries outside
community area being marked out specifically.
Collapse of Mycenaean palace - transition towards concerns of
the individual and the individuals' place in the community they
Recognition of areas of purely residential, people cannot do
anything they like on the land they control, community land
usage for certain activities (ownership).
Minoans & Mycenaeans, nothing the same happening with
these two groups.
Italian's were "late bloomers" 700, Roman republic in
Not until final bronze age that we see permanent settlements.
o Etruscans are NOT first Romans
First Roman kings were Etruscan, but they were not "Roman".
Etruscans not alone in Italy, other pre-roman groups
existed(Faliscans, Samnites, Umbrians) - from "Italy Before the
Romans" by Erla Zwingle.
The more organized of these groups had urban centers earlier
and are therefore more represented in the archaeological
Synoecism: process of formally independent states forming a
unified city state.
Etruscans had no middle class, only "haves" and "have nots".
Two origin theories:
1. Autochthonous- indigenous.
2. Migration In all known cases presence of Villanovans pre-dated
Etruscans, suggesting that Etruscans were a result of evolution
through outside contact of the original Villanovans.
Etruscan city development had a large impact on the formation
of the Roman city state.
Transition from late bronze age to iron age and city state in Italy:
o Dark Age - destruction and collapse of Mycenaean centres, end of
o End of Mycenaean culture was long and complicated.
o High quality and quantity of pottery found in eastern Attica,
Buildings: Types & Functions:
o Similar interest between cities: belief and dependence on gods
o There is a relationship between the citizen and the
gods. The influence of spiritual belief was channelled through the
creation of religious buildings and temples.
o Different temples and religious buildings were
constructed/developed as place of worship for specific reasons
o There was at least one major temple close to the center of the
o Temple forms are fundamental to Greek architecture
o They were expensive, carefully constructed, and used a system of
o Considered "houses of the gods", so they had the house form
o The Pantheon is the only major concrete temple
o Difference between houses and monuments (2nd - 1st
o Stoa - form of a temple porch (first use was in sanctuaries-Hera
o Agrora - courtyard, gathering place for politics, legal matters, and
o Gymnasia - exercise grounds, military training, education
o Basilica - general purpose building
o Atriunm central space
o Tablinum- formal room o alae- open rooms
o Concrete influenced the form of Roman cities
o Rome had absence of central court & employed symmetry
o Pax Romana created wealth
o Greek and Hellenic: Robin G. Osborne
Urban units were recognized not as simple clusters of
communities but for their architecturally detailed organization.
Argued that archaeologists are too quick to classify early
bronze age settlements as towns, however, evidence of linear
B tablets and archaeological remains indicate late bronze age
centers of the Minoan and Mycenaean were, in fact, urban units
in size, occupational diversity, and culture.
Palaces were important as storage facilities and distributors of
agriculture; vital for stability and is a source of political power.
There were no towns during the dark ages; they emerged with
the merge of communities for economic and political reasons.
Corinth's urbanization was a result of colonization where
outstretched areas became organized communities, this