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Lecture 7

CLA 101-Lecture 7 - Oct 20th.docx

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Andrew Graham

Lecture 7 - Oct 20th Lecture Title: The Rise of the Polis and City-State  The Rise of the Polis and City-State o Depopulation, end of Mycenaean culture long & complex. o Quality of goods at graves in Perati high & frequent - imported objects from near east as well. o Perati not an isolated examples, Rhodes as well, links across Aegean stronger at beginning of 12th century. o Relocation of populations away from coast back to hills (on Crete). o Karphi - similar to earlier Minoan settlements, single storey houses, 3500 approx. o Burials at Karphi similar to Mycenaean cultural burials. o 1000 BC, Karphi & Perati go out of use. o 320 down to 40 sites used by this time. o Greece 8th & 7th century don't tell where people are moving to during "dark age". o Transition from "Age of Heroes" to later Greek world found in 5th century. o Begins in north, migrate southwards for all 3 major migrations (according to Usidides). o Political setup not transferred from mainland (Mycenaean). o Decrease in identifiable settlements, plausible that didn't leave archaeological footprint. o Lefkandi provides most graphic account of what happened. o Richest, most progressive site in Greece at this time (abandonment at end of 8th century), originally Mycenaean at end of 12th abandoned. o Peristyle of wooden posts used at Heroon - not Mycenaean precedent. o Whoever was buried at Lefkandi was very powerful - one family exploited rest of society. o Evidence for external contact not apparent, Lefkandi alone. o Became a cemetery 100 years after Lefkandi became occupied. o Contents, pots from Athens (many), Athenian style cremation, weapons, prestige beads from Thessaly, local gold - no single family dominated area now. o Wealth not narrowly distributed. o 10th-9th century Megaron found from this period. o Pottery made in Lefkandi makes it all the way to Rehov (Palestine). o Black-figure pottery - style of ancient Greek pottery w/ black silhouettes on red background, came from Corinth in 7th C BCE; replaced by Red-figure pottery w/ red silhouettes on a black background in; came from Athens in 6th C BCE and lasted until 3rd C BCE.  900 everything packed into pot during burial.  800 - everything changes in Athens, cremations stop, fewer grave goods deposited, pots displays fewer variations in shape and style.  Elaborately decorated, monumental size for pots that are grave markers.  725 - children buried alongside adults for first time, no grave goods, offering trenches, not everyday items.  700 (Archaic) cremation resumes - involves burning of corpse in the burial site (totally different from 100 years earlier) all offering are in trenches, only burial in cemeteries outside community area being marked out specifically.  Collapse of Mycenaean palace - transition towards concerns of the individual and the individuals' place in the community they live in.  Recognition of areas of purely residential, people cannot do anything they like on the land they control, community land usage for certain activities (ownership).  Minoans & Mycenaeans, nothing the same happening with these two groups.  Italian's were "late bloomers" 700, Roman republic in embryonic stage.  Not until final bronze age that we see permanent settlements. o Etruscans are NOT first Romans  First Roman kings were Etruscan, but they were not "Roman".  Etruscans not alone in Italy, other pre-roman groups existed(Faliscans, Samnites, Umbrians) - from "Italy Before the Romans" by Erla Zwingle.  The more organized of these groups had urban centers earlier and are therefore more represented in the archaeological record.  Synoecism: process of formally independent states forming a unified city state.  Etruscans had no middle class, only "haves" and "have nots".  Two origin theories: 1. Autochthonous- indigenous. 2. Migration  In all known cases presence of Villanovans pre-dated Etruscans, suggesting that Etruscans were a result of evolution through outside contact of the original Villanovans.  Etruscan city development had a large impact on the formation of the Roman city state.  Transition from late bronze age to iron age and city state in Italy: o Urbanization. o Dark Age - destruction and collapse of Mycenaean centres, end of written history. o End of Mycenaean culture was long and complicated. o High quality and quantity of pottery found in eastern Attica, Perati.  Many tombs. READINGS____________________________________ ________________ Buildings: Types & Functions: o Similar interest between cities: belief and dependence on gods o There is a relationship between the citizen and the gods. The influence of spiritual belief was channelled through the creation of religious buildings and temples. o Different temples and religious buildings were constructed/developed as place of worship for specific reasons o There was at least one major temple close to the center of the city o Temple forms are fundamental to Greek architecture o They were expensive, carefully constructed, and used a system of columns o Considered "houses of the gods", so they had the house form o The Pantheon is the only major concrete temple o Difference between houses and monuments (2nd - 1st millennium) o Stoa - form of a temple porch (first use was in sanctuaries-Hera on Samos) o Agrora - courtyard, gathering place for politics, legal matters, and commerce o Gymnasia - exercise grounds, military training, education o Basilica - general purpose building o Atriunm central space o Tablinum- formal room o alae- open rooms o Concrete influenced the form of Roman cities o Rome had absence of central court & employed symmetry o Pax Romana created wealth Urbanism: o Greek and Hellenic: Robin G. Osborne  Urban units were recognized not as simple clusters of communities but for their architecturally detailed organization.  Argued that archaeologists are too quick to classify early bronze age settlements as towns, however, evidence of linear B tablets and archaeological remains indicate late bronze age centers of the Minoan and Mycenaean were, in fact, urban units in size, occupational diversity, and culture.  Palaces were important as storage facilities and distributors of agriculture; vital for stability and is a source of political power.  There were no towns during the dark ages; they emerged with the merge of communities for economic and political reasons.  Corinth's urbanization was a result of colonization where outstretched areas became organized communities, this happened du
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