Class Notes (834,664)
Canada (508,678)
Classics (225)
CLA101H5 (57)
Lecture 7

CLA 101-Lecture 7 - Oct 20th.docx

7 Pages
83 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Classics
Course
CLA101H5
Professor
Andrew Graham
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 7 - Oct 20th Lecture Title: The Rise of the Polis and City-State  The Rise of the Polis and City-State o Depopulation, end of Mycenaean culture long & complex. o Quality of goods at graves in Perati high & frequent - imported objects from near east as well. o Perati not an isolated examples, Rhodes as well, links across Aegean stronger at beginning of 12th century. o Relocation of populations away from coast back to hills (on Crete). o Karphi - similar to earlier Minoan settlements, single storey houses, 3500 approx. o Burials at Karphi similar to Mycenaean cultural burials. o 1000 BC, Karphi & Perati go out of use. o 320 down to 40 sites used by this time. o Greece 8th & 7th century don't tell where people are moving to during "dark age". o Transition from "Age of Heroes" to later Greek world found in 5th century. o Begins in north, migrate southwards for all 3 major migrations (according to Usidides). o Political setup not transferred from mainland (Mycenaean). o Decrease in identifiable settlements, plausible that didn't leave archaeological footprint. o Lefkandi provides most graphic account of what happened. o Richest, most progressive site in Greece at this time (abandonment at end of 8th century), originally Mycenaean at end of 12th abandoned. o Peristyle of wooden posts used at Heroon - not Mycenaean precedent. o Whoever was buried at Lefkandi was very powerful - one family exploited rest of society. o Evidence for external contact not apparent, Lefkandi alone. o Became a cemetery 100 years after Lefkandi became occupied. o Contents, pots from Athens (many), Athenian style cremation, weapons, prestige beads from Thessaly, local gold - no single family dominated area now. o Wealth not narrowly distributed. o 10th-9th century Megaron found from this period. o Pottery made in Lefkandi makes it all the way to Rehov (Palestine). o Black-figure pottery - style of ancient Greek pottery w/ black silhouettes on red background, came from Corinth in 7th C BCE; replaced by Red-figure pottery w/ red silhouettes on a black background in; came from Athens in 6th C BCE and lasted until 3rd C BCE.  900 everything packed into pot during burial.  800 - everything changes in Athens, cremations stop, fewer grave goods deposited, pots displays fewer variations in shape and style.  Elaborately decorated, monumental size for pots that are grave markers.  725 - children buried alongside adults for first time, no grave goods, offering trenches, not everyday items.  700 (Archaic) cremation resumes - involves burning of corpse in the burial site (totally different from 100 years earlier) all offering are in trenches, only burial in cemeteries outside community area being marked out specifically.  Collapse of Mycenaean palace - transition towards concerns of the individual and the individuals' place in the community they live in.  Recognition of areas of purely residential, people cannot do anything they like on the land they control, community land usage for certain activities (ownership).  Minoans & Mycenaeans, nothing the same happening with these two groups.  Italian's were "late bloomers" 700, Roman republic in embryonic stage.  Not until final bronze age that we see permanent settlements. o Etruscans are NOT first Romans  First Roman kings were Etruscan, but they were not "Roman".  Etruscans not alone in Italy, other pre-roman groups existed(Faliscans, Samnites, Umbrians) - from "Italy Before the Romans" by Erla Zwingle.  The more organized of these groups had urban centers earlier and are therefore more represented in the archaeological record.  Synoecism: process of formally independent states forming a unified city state.  Etruscans had no middle class, only "haves" and "have nots".  Two origin theories: 1. Autochthonous- indigenous. 2. Migration  In all known cases presence of Villanovans pre-dated Etruscans, suggesting that Etruscans were a result of evolution through outside contact of the original Villanovans.  Etruscan city development had a large impact on the formation of the Roman city state.  Transition from late bronze age to iron age and city state in Italy: o Urbanization. o Dark Age - destruction and collapse of Mycenaean centres, end of written history. o End of Mycenaean culture was long and complicated. o High quality and quantity of pottery found in eastern Attica, Perati.  Many tombs. READINGS____________________________________ ________________ Buildings: Types & Functions: o Similar interest between cities: belief and dependence on gods o There is a relationship between the citizen and the gods. The influence of spiritual belief was channelled through the creation of religious buildings and temples. o Different temples and religious buildings were constructed/developed as place of worship for specific reasons o There was at least one major temple close to the center of the city o Temple forms are fundamental to Greek architecture o They were expensive, carefully constructed, and used a system of columns o Considered "houses of the gods", so they had the house form o The Pantheon is the only major concrete temple o Difference between houses and monuments (2nd - 1st millennium) o Stoa - form of a temple porch (first use was in sanctuaries-Hera on Samos) o Agrora - courtyard, gathering place for politics, legal matters, and commerce o Gymnasia - exercise grounds, military training, education o Basilica - general purpose building o Atriunm central space o Tablinum- formal room o alae- open rooms o Concrete influenced the form of Roman cities o Rome had absence of central court & employed symmetry o Pax Romana created wealth Urbanism: o Greek and Hellenic: Robin G. Osborne  Urban units were recognized not as simple clusters of communities but for their architecturally detailed organization.  Argued that archaeologists are too quick to classify early bronze age settlements as towns, however, evidence of linear B tablets and archaeological remains indicate late bronze age centers of the Minoan and Mycenaean were, in fact, urban units in size, occupational diversity, and culture.  Palaces were important as storage facilities and distributors of agriculture; vital for stability and is a source of political power.  There were no towns during the dark ages; they emerged with the merge of communities for economic and political reasons.  Corinth's urbanization was a result of colonization where outstretched areas became organized communities, this happened du
More Less

Related notes for CLA101H5

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit