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Lecture 9

CLA101H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Gaius Antonius Hybrida, Viminal Hill, Caelian Hill

Course Code
Andrew Graham

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Lecture 9 - Nov 3rd
Lecture Title: Cicero's Rome
Cicero’s Rome
Cicero represented what the Republic was meant to be
Cicero’s personal letters are valued because they provide insightful
views and inner thoughts on various individuals such as Julius
Speeches, first and foremost a lawyer, legal defense
Considered to be the greatest lawyer of the ancient world - was very
skilled at creating doubt and changing the subject in court when his
client was in the "hot seat"
Was outspoken and publicly criticized Mark Anthony
Was executed by Augustus at the request of Mark Anthony
His slave was freed before he died and lived the remainder of his life
as Cicero's best friend/client.
Roman Republic-Government and Politics:
509 BC, delineates between monarchical and republican periods
Battle of Actium 31 BC (this was the battle between Mark Anthony
and Octavian/Augustus, in which Mark Anthony was eventually
Systems of government are long processes
Roman republic, mix of several characteristics
Institutions - day to day operations of Gov.
Ideologies - Governing ideas embodied in collection of laws, ex.
Human rights laws
Social practices, that evolve and change over time
Historical experience - has significant impact on how a state governs
Romans Government thought to be unchanging, however in reality
changes significantly

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Organizing Concepts
Collegiality: Magistrates worked like a group of officers
Annuality: All members were elected annually
Consul: was the highest office of the Roman state / two elected
annually, and if one died, remaining was responsible to schedule an
election/convened voting assemblies to pass legislation/lead the
army/at end of year part of senate
Praetor: Initially 2 / Judicial officers of the Roman state presided in
courts, “Praetors Edict” what was to be accomplished that year.
Quaestor: Financial officers of Roman state / Received taxes, fines,
tributes, often enriched themselves financially, and negotiated state
contracts / automatically entered the senate upon retirement
Aediles: 'Curators of the people,' 2 elected annually, care for the
urban-food supply, public buildings, entertainments/did not enter
senate on retirement
Tribune of the Plebs: Total of 10 / Power derived by their
sacrosanctitas (could not be harmed in any way- not subject to
persecution under law) / Act in the best interest of the common
people/had the power of veto (I forbid)-the could veto any
legislation brought before state/Very important role-position easily
taken advantage of
Censor: Elected every 5 years, served for 18 months, 3.5 years
later another election/ Fix census status of citizens, issued rules on
public morality, generally experienced people became censors.
Voting Assemblies: passed Roman law
o Tribal Assembly: organized into 4 urban and 29 rural / was not
kinship based but geographical
o Centuriate Assembly: groups of citizens based on wealth (192
Voting Procedure:
-legislation could be introduced by anyone
-read 3 times from the rostrum (podium in the forum), debated and voted upon

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- block system (to agree or disagree using pebbles), and once enough votes were
cast, voting stopped
- Centuriate Assembly had a total of 192 votes (based on wealth) had the first 100
- Tribal Assembly had a total of 33 votes
Rome based on a culture of deference to age and experience
mos maiorum-Ancestral custom: young were encouraged to follow
the example of the elders
Patron-Client bonds: The rich and powerful had large numbers of
people in various bonds of obligation to them. Patrons were the
ones in power, who would look after their clients interests and well
being, but would expect their support in public affairs)
Elitism: small numbers of families provided most office holders for
first 400 years (a senatorial aristocracy)
Auctoritas: place importance in Inner dignity of great people past
and present, not necessarily depending on wealth
Polybius (200-118 BCE)
-Attributed the greatness of Rome to their mixed constitution
Consuls = kings = monarchy (ruled by one)
Senators = aristocrats = Oligarchy (ruled by few)
Assemblies = demos = Democracy (ruled by many)
Cyclical Nature of Civilizations
Monarchy Oligarchy Democracy Mob Rule Monarchy (somewhere between
Oligarchy and Democracy was a period of Tyranny - tyrants were like a one-man rule
who would take power forcefully)
-Polybius did not include
-culture of deference
-senatorial aristocracy
-small number of families that monopolized political power
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