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Lecture 9

CLA 101-Lecture 9 - Nov 3rd.docx

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Andrew Graham

Lecture 9 - Nov 3rd Lecture Title: Cicero's Rome Cicero’s Rome  Cicero represented what the Republic was meant to be  Cicero’s personal letters are valued because they provide insightful views and inner thoughts on various individuals such as Julius Caesar  Speeches, first and foremost a lawyer, legal defense  Considered to be the greatest lawyer of the ancient world - was very skilled at creating doubt and changing the subject in court when his client was in the "hot seat"  Was outspoken and publicly criticized Mark Anthony  Was executed by Augustus at the request of Mark Anthony  His slave was freed before he died and lived the remainder of his life as Cicero's best friend/client. Roman Republic-Government and Politics:  509 BC, delineates between monarchical and republican periods  Battle of Actium 31 BC (this was the battle between Mark Anthony and Octavian/Augustus, in which Mark Anthony was eventually destroyed)  Systems of government are long processes  Roman republic, mix of several characteristics  Institutions - day to day operations of Gov.  Ideologies - Governing ideas embodied in collection of laws, ex. Human rights laws  Social practices, that evolve and change over time  Historical experience - has significant impact on how a state governs itself  Romans Government thought to be unchanging, however in reality changes significantly Organizing Concepts  Collegiality: Magistrates worked like a group of officers  Annuality: All members were elected annually  Consul: was the highest office of the Roman state / two elected annually, and if one died, remaining was responsible to schedule an election/convened voting assemblies to pass legislation/lead the army/at end of year part of senate  Praetor: Initially 2 / Judicial officers of the Roman state presided in courts, “Praetors Edict” what was to be accomplished that year.  Quaestor: Financial officers of Roman state / Received taxes, fines, tributes, often enriched themselves financially, and negotiated state contracts / automatically entered the senate upon retirement  Aediles: 'Curators of the people,' 2 elected annually, care for the urban-food supply, public buildings, entertainments/did not enter senate on retirement  Tribune of the Plebs: Total of 10 / Power derived by their sacrosanctitas (could not be harmed in any way- not subject to persecution under law) / Act in the best interest of the common people/had the power of veto (I forbid)-the could veto any legislation brought before state/Very important role-position easily taken advantage of  Censor: Elected every 5 years, served for 18 months, 3.5 years later another election/ Fix census status of citizens, issued rules on public morality, generally experienced people became censors.  Voting Assemblies: passed Roman law o Tribal Assembly: organized into 4 urban and 29 rural / was not kinship based but geographical o Centuriate Assembly: groups of citizens based on wealth (192 'Centuries') Voting Procedure: -legislation could be introduced by anyone -read 3 times from the rostrum (podium in the forum), debated and voted upon - block system (to agree or disagree using pebbles), and once enough votes were cast, voting stopped - Centuriate Assembly had a total of 192 votes (based on wealth) had the first 100 votes - Tribal Assembly had a total of 33 votes  Rome based on a culture of deference to age and experience  mos maiorum-Ancestral custom: young were encouraged to follow the example of the elders  Patron-Client bonds: The rich and powerful had large numbers of people in various bonds of obligation to them. Patrons were the ones in power, who would look after their clients interests and well being, but would expect their support in public affairs)  Elitism: small numbers of families provided most office holders for first 400 years (a senatorial aristocracy)  Auctoritas: place importance in Inner dignity of great people past and present, not necessarily depending on wealth Polybius (200-118 BCE) -Attributed the greatness of Rome to their mixed constitution  Consuls = kings = monarchy (ruled by one)  Senators = aristocrats = Oligarchy (ruled by few)  Assemblies = demos = Democracy (ruled by many) Cyclical Nature of Civilizations Monarchy → Oligarchy → Democracy → Mob Rule → Monarchy (somewhere between Oligarchy and Democracy was a period of Tyranny - tyrants were like a one-man rule who would take power forcefully) -Polybius did not include -culture of deference -senatorial aristocracy -small number of families that monopolized political power -could not therefore account for transition from republic to empire Roman house: Had a particular social function, based around Tablinum and Atrium, one had to reach a certain status in order to build a certain style of house. Those who had Atrium style houses had reached a certain status. Due to client –patron relationships, every Roman individual had to reach a certain economic status. Mosaics were used to engage others visiting their house, conveyed certain messages. These tactics influenced people’s perceptions. The Movie:  First century BC, city of 1 million, empire stretched from Spain to Syria  Roman elite were rich beyond measure (ex. Augustus, Caesar, Nero)  Upper class were well educated, contemplated the finer things in life  Bay of Naples , villas were built  Climate, rich volcanic soil, abundance of grapes and fruits, fish and shellfish  Bounty was depicted in mosaics and frescoes  Region of geothermal activity lay nearby  Steam from fishers was piped into mineral baths in complexes  Villa: combined private gardens with richly painted interiors - gardens represented contemplation, relaxation, and was a place for shade  Villa known as San Marcos, reveals lifestyle of Romans, Many villas built along the Bay, looks as one continuous City-political elite  Business owners brought elite to area, artists followed to decorate the interiors of the Villas  Marbles, Newbium gold, Lvyia wife of Augustus represents Roman imperial  Silver mirrors, cups glassware showed desire for elegance in daily life  City had a flavour for art  Pompeii was congested and dirty outside, cities houses were crammed with other industries, houses in Pompeii face inward, strangers were discouraged by attack dogs  Atrium furniture was elegant, displaying tables and sculptures to show a family's prized possessions  Tablinum served as an office for the head of the house  Decorations such as frescoes were very common, suggesting affinity of taste  Gardens were smaller; however copied villas features  Modest homes, little gardens existed  Sometimes there were painted gardens on the walls when not enough space  Reflected fascination with Greek culture  Southern Italy part of Greece-Naples  Maritime villas depicted Greek myths  Silver cup, depicts the ways of Hercules, Romans copied and imitated Greek art for several reasons  Apollo brought light to the world, Alexander in a bronze statute  Elite built substantial art collections  Three graces suggested joy and beauty  Romans showcase Greek art style in gardens, ex. theatrical masks  Important to see gardens, serves as viewpoints for guests  79 AD, Mount Vesuvius erupted  Pliny the younger was an eyewitness - described the eruption as an "umbrella pine"  Spread a mixed and deadly cargo, poisonous gas, mud around the Bay of Naples  Dense layer of rock and volcanic ash, covering the city in nearly 20 feet of ash  Red hot mud surged down from Vesuvius  Killed thousand on contact  City laid on for 17 centuries th  18 century discovery of Pompeii  Sir William Hamilton came in 1764 and stayed for 24 years th  Pompeii erupted sporadically throughout the 18 century  Pompeii added to the Grand Tour in the 1800's Who was Cicero?  Born January 3, 106 BC in Arpinium. Latium  Died December 7, 43 BC in Formiae, Latium  was a member of the government and had other experience in areas such as law, ancient literature, and philosophy  was a very successful orator  he was a very large factor in aiding Rome through difficult times in her history  wrote many famous works and said many famous speeches that would be used for their meanings and guidelines long after his death and even into the Renaissance  as a boy Cicero's very first style of learning came through papyrus scrolls that were located in his father's library  he showed much promise in the field of philosophy as well as oratory and was taken by his father (along with his
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