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Lecture 4

CLA 101-Lecture 4 - Sept 29th.docx

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Andrew Graham

Lecture 4 - Sept 29th Lecture Title: Prehistoric Italy and Greece Video: Homo Sapiens: The Rise of our Species (2007) - David Suzuki - Paleolithic time period: Homo Sapiens were located first in Africa where they learned to make fire, stoned tools, and rope. Than they began to spread, no one knows why. -12, 000 years ago there was a climate change ; temperatures were warming, oceans rose 120 m which re-shaped continents. As a result, plants and animals multiplied - Homo Sapiens: domesticated wolves (became a part of man's social system), domesticated nature. - Before agriculture, Nomads (hunter-gatherers) stored enough food so they could stay in the same area for months at a time. - Nomads settled not because they didn't want to move but because they couldn't: they were either blocked by desert or the sea - However, Nomads stayed because: i. Permanent food supply ii. Permanent settlement iii. Strong housing (stone housing which made it safe to hide out during wind storms) -First permanent dwellings occured in the fertile crescent in the near East - Villages progressed when 100s of Nomads would stay in the same area where houses were made out of sundired mud bricks (the importance of family occurred here- what was before a group system became a family system) - Gobekli Tepe in Turkey was a very important finding, it proved that the hunter- gatherer became the planter. Therefore, settlement occurred first and agriculture occurred second - Nomads transformed forest into farmland (this was agriculture) - The ability to create more food means we could feed more people and therefore the population grew: The Neolithic Period - Nomads would consider themselves one with nature, however Appropriation started to take over: man gave himself power over nature (the first form of hierarchy) - Due to Appropriation, Animal Husbandry occurred: Homo Sapiens domesticated livestock for food rather than hunting -Due to this change, (domestication of livestock), changed in animal morphology occurred - There wasn't a hierarchy during the Neolithic period so how did an egalitarian society being to make a hierarchical pyramid? - Villages got bigger, there was more to argue about, and more specialized jobs occurred so people depended on other people for certain jobs such as craftsmanship and farming - Therefore a Chieftainship began: a chief would be the leader, this person would be the chief because they would know everything and how to lead everything - People had to develop social forms to control the people, there were no social hierarchy within the Neolithic villages. Each person was appreciated in participating within the community. - Survival to the fittest becoming Survival of the richest--> those who controlled domesticated animals and plants. - Development of social order, and the emergence of a chief to govern certain peoples. The appearance of religious buildings in social/political societies became recognized. - People became more dependent upon each other. - The elite had emerged, a social pyramid, a real power became apparent when people would surround themselves with militia or guards. - Villages that were organized had created certain chief figures. - The chief had to fulfill religious functions, and certain decisions. - Trading posts developed, locals would trade with other merchants, the authority was placed to collect taxes. -Society was becoming more complex. Profs. Notes on the Video - Gobekli Tepe has forced us to rethink our agricultural roots - conflict over resources lead to more permanent settlements - the first farmers were in fact hunter-gatherers - There are 3 main reasons why Nomads settled: i. Geography restricted movements ii. It was a choice - a cultural change iii. Promise of certainty for food and shelter iii. shift toward building enclosed houses in order to accommodate the family unit; focus on the importance of family - Appropriation: Ownership - Chiefdoms - Ranked society (the "goods" needed to belong to someone)- most apparent through burial practices Chronology To be used in this class: -Early(6000-5000BC) -Middle(5000-4500BC) -Late(4500-4000BC) -Final(4000-3000BC) -It is clear that the classic civilization began before writing, in the neolithic -Neolithic revolution DID NOT occur all at once but rather over a period of time in many different areas.Early Neolithic - Franchthi cave: it is here where we have evidence from 20 000 - 3000 B.C.E by radiocarbon - In this time we did many things: i. Domesticated sheep/goat ii. Domesticated what and barley iii. Polished stone/grinding tools iv. Pottery v. Expansion outside cave vi. Increase in obsidian blades vii. Fish hooks - What we see here is change in technology based on the change of our subsistance needs - Obsedian was found on the Island of Melos - John Robb provides examples as to why they got obsedian (which is volcanic glass) i. Technologically Superior ii. Exotic Item - it was rare iii. Functionally alternative, nothing special iv. Specialized technology function - used to make tools and blades v. Important cultural symbol vi. Important symbol for social role- used in the trade market - The presence or absence of obsedian at a site lets us know how a cities trade and social networks were - it is important to know that the change in burial practices came along with the increase of obsedian European Models of Neolithi
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