Lecture 11 - Nov 17th
Lecture 11: The Greco-roman top 10
Parthenon - a temple of Greek goddess Athena- "protector of the
Built on the highest point of the Acropolis in Athens.
Constructed of fine marble
The name "Parthenon" was originally given to a west room inside.
Constructed from 447BC - 432 BC.
It was built to house the gold and ivory statue by Phidias. Phidias
was responsible for the temple's sculptural decoration design, but
not the Temple's architectural design.
Architectural design is by Ictinus and Callicrates.
Doric order (one of the design styles) was seen at its most perfect in
Sculpture more relevant to the order- every Metope (panel) carved
between triglyph (the 3 vertical bands)
Pediment: triangular element.
the metopes showed mythical battles
the Frieze- horizontal bands- would depict or honor young athenians
who died at Marathon
The whole temple interpreted as a thank‐offering for final,
successful outcome of the Persian Wars, and it is clear that the
reliefs (frienze) tribute this, to the glorification of the Greek, and
specifically Athenian, contribution to the victory.
temple later converted into a church, dedicated to the Virgin, and
then a mosque.
regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece and of Athenian
· A temple located in the Campus Martius in Rome.
Pantheon is Latin for "All gods" as it was dedicated to all the gods.
First built by Vipsanius Agrippa in 27–25 BC.
Rebuilt for Emperior Hadrian after it was destroyed.
Later repaired by Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
It is the single best preserved ancient building. Its columns are huge one piece granite imported from Egypt which
is a testament of Rome's power and their control over Egypt.
A circle of light beams from the oculus and moves around the
building as the sun moves through the sky.
Linear A and B script
Two scripts used in Crete in the 2nd millennium BC.
Linear A is a pictographic form of writing used by Minoans from
c.1750 to c.1450 BC with no accepted decipherment, previously
Linear B is a ‘syllabic’ writing system used by the Mycenaean.
o It is a modified version of the Linear A script to fit the Mycenaean
language. Many characters are identical.
o There are 90 characters, each representing a syllable.
o made with straight or curved linear strokes
o included all our vowels (a e i o u) vowels
o 2 consonants would not appear together- would rearrange them
o It did not distinguish between syllables beginning with R/L or B/P
so it often led to ambiguous spellings making the script more
difficult to decipher.
o Used on mainland Greece during the Bronze Age, as well as Crete
o First discovered by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900 during his
excavations at Knossos
o British cryptologist Michael Ventris deciphered the script in 1952
and confirmed the language was the earliest known form of
o The tablets found by Evans prove that Mycenaean Greek was the
scribal language in Crete at the time of its destruction.
Assumptions that Mycenaean had taken over Crete by either
assimilation or by conquest.
o Tablets written in Linear B were mainly ledgers so they don't
reveal much about the people. However, they provide us with
their supplies, technology, laws, and what gods they worshiped.
o Tablets written in Linear B script were also discovered by Carl
Blegen in his excavation of Palace of Nestor (Pylos, Greece) in
1939 and 1952-66
Vindolanda and the Vindolanda Tablets
- Vindolanda is a Roman auxiliary fort constructed after the Roman conquest of
- It is located south of the Hadrian's Wall. - Civilian settlements flourished nearby
- A major excavation program in 1970-1973 uncovered around 2000 thin wooden
writing tablets no larger than a postcard. In 1993, 400 more were discovered.
- Documents include accounts, stores lists, duty rosters, a strength report, duty
officers' report, and miscellaneous military memorabilia. Literary fragments,
shorthand texts, as well as letters between commanding officers' wives, slaves, and