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Lec 3.pdf

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA204H5
Professor
Daniel Thornton
Semester
Summer

Description
Lec3 Tuesday,July12, 2011 6:01PM - Mostscholarstill19th cent followedLatinform(asinhandout) Greek->wesee - Lastfewdecades->modernworlduseconventionoftransliterationthatmoreaccuratelyreflectsGreek ai->ae original u->o Hephaistos e u e->a Primarysource->Homeretc. firstoriginofthesources,mythsthemselves Secondarysource ->materialsthateithercomment,describe,discussofdelineateonprimarysources ->i.emagazine,etc.commentsonmyths Essay:primarysources->mythsthemselves Mid-term:knowsGodsandtheircompetence - Lasttimesawstruggletocontrolcosmos (Hesiod) ○ Hesioddescribescreationofhumans theos|thea->termforGod ○ FeaturesoftheGod ○ - 34hymnsthat are sungthat aresaid to beHomerichymnsofvaryinglength ○ Homericb/cusesamemetricalconstructionasHomer->dactylichexameter(first4canbe long shortshortorlonglong,5th is longshortshort,6th itlonglongor short) ->6metricalfeet  OnlyrealreasonforcallingemHomeric,besidesthefactthatarecomposedinsamedialect  Mostwrotetheway theyspokedialectically □ i.eD'yawannago (sayingDoyou wantto go but issaidlikethat) ○ LookathowGods figureinworldofhumanbeings ○ Drivenbyspeech->Godsare forefront  Inancientworld,thoughtshouldbeattributedtoHomerhimself ○ Oldestliterarymonumentsthathavecomedowntous ○ Someare4-5lines,others500-ishlineslong ○ Apparentlyruleswereinvolved 1) Epiklesis(invitation,callinguponi.e.ODemeter,ladyoftheearth) 2) Epainesis(praise->youaregreatand wonderfulandweworshipyoub/c…) 3) Diegesis(longestpart,isnarrative.Oftenquiteextendedandgivesmythicbiographyof Gods) ○ Homerichymnspraisegreatergods,sometimeslesserones ○ Followsroleofcompetitionbutnorecordsofcompetitionsheldandrulesbeingfollowedand hymnsbeingsung ○ Singerendsbyleadingtoopeningofanotherhymn ○ Problem:widedifferenceinlength  Couldbeb/cmanuscripttraditionwassparseandpoemswereverypopularaftertheywere writtendown □ Notrueauthorship - Notlookingatmonotheisticsystembutapolytheistic - Godscomeinmany forms(God,demigodetc.manybeingsqualify) ○ PolytheismhassystemwereGodsareinmutualoppositionbutonthingisclearthatthey're immortalbegins ○ Anthropomorphic ○ Gods(GreekGodsforsure)are inthe wordsofMirceaEliade(scholar) fecundators->meaning fertile,fertilizers,theforcesthatgenerates/createstuffofthecosmos  Metaphorsforhumansociety,personification(Zeus,storm)andhumanbeings(Herafamily) ○ Archetypes  Zeusarchetypicalfatherfigure,Heraarchetypicalwifelyfigure,Aphroditearchetypeof humansexuality ○ Historically(pre-historic)godsandgoddessesarewaystodescribe/explaintheunexplainable  Godsareway ofdefiningmystery ○ MythicscholarssayGods willoccupyforcesofnatureand/oranimals Callegyptiangodstheriopomorphic->animalforms  Losethesequalitiesandbecomemoreandmorelikeusovertime - Pantheon,PAN-allgods - Reflectionoftensionwithfamilies(i.e.ZeusandHera) - AllGreeksprobablydidn'tworshipallofthegodsallthetime ○ Inaworldofdo utdes (Igiveso thatyou give) ->ex.I willsendmy7daughterssoyouwillprotect thecity ○ Systemofreciprocity ○ b/crelationbasedonneedbasedreciprocity,thereisn'talwaysaneed(i.e.wannagetlaid Aphrodite,sogivingyouthesedoves)  Worshipgodsasyouneedthemto  Greekgodsoccupylimitedsphereoflife  AddressGodyouneed/willhelpyou - Henotheism->systemwhereinyouacknowledgethereareseveralgodsbutchoosetoworshiponlyone - DidGreekslovetheirGods?Probablynot ○ Humansareusefulforwhateverpurpose(i.e.sacrifice)butrarelyseeanyonelovedbyGods(only 1or2 actuallycare) ○ Aristotle:absurdifsomeonesaystheyloveZeus  Notlove,it'sneed - Godsinterveneinhumanworldintermsofaction/interaction ○ Don’texistthatfarfromus as much as theyexistwithus ○ Wedon'tgo to theGods afterdeath ○ Greekreligion:noblessedthereaftertoexperience,thislifematters  i.e.whocaresifit'srainingwhileyou'redead?Youcarewhenyou'realive  Notionofafterlifeisevolving  w/oGods= noGreekmythology;nearlyallGreekmythshaveGods - Whatare variancecompetencies?AttributesoftheGods? ○ Poseidon->trident ○ Godshaveattributeswhichhelpestablishtheiridentities ○ Epithet(somethingthat'sputupon) ->titleputonGod thatdescribeshis/heridentityi.e.Zeus Xenios(Xenia)  Hades->Eubouleus(OGoodWilledone)kindalikeHarryPotterwithVoldemort(hewho mustnotbenamed) ○ DeedshelpdelineateGods.AlsodefinesGods(i.e.Aphroditedoeseverybodybutisalso representedbydoves) - SomeGodscomeintoexistenceaftercertaindisposition ○ Zeuswillalwayslooklike50-60yearoldfatherfigure,Heraamotherfigure  Offspringarestuckatvaryingages(i.e.ArtemisandApollostuckatlateteens)  Impliesinageoftransition,willalwayshavechaotic___b/cA&A stuckb/wtransitionof youthandadult  Poseidon,DemeteraresameageasZeus,whileDemeterhas16yearolddaughter ○ Alltheseelementshelpidentifycertaingodandcontributetoimagetheyhadofthegods - Godswe'relookingat:notTitansbut Olympians->resideonMt.Olympus ○ Goeswayback butfirstcomeintoappearancein6 BCE  Peisistratosdecidedtosetupaltarof 12 Gods inAthens  MaindivinityofOlympianswasZeus->startedasskygods,weatherentityandwas worshipedonmountainsandthenbecamekeyGodandfatherofthewaythingsare  12/14, 12 forsure,restcome andgo  Oldestgeneration->Zeus,Hera,Demeter,Hestia,Poseidon □ Aphroditeisolderthenallofem->appearsyoungerthenZeusbutisolder  Zeusisfather/kingofthisorganization - Indo-European->termusedwhendiscussinglanguagefamilywhentheyhaveobviousconnection amongstthemselves ○ i.e.Vater,Father,Pater,Pitr,Pater(samewordbutdifferentdialect) ○ AtsomepointIndo-Europeanssettledinregionswheretheselanguageswerespoken ○ CalledIndo-Europeanlanguagefamilytree ○ Isusualintryingto helpidentifymythologicaldeities  Zeus:ispronouncedDzeus(DandZ sound) □ Otherforms:Dios,Dii,Dia □ Sanskritequivalent:DyausPitr(Zeusthefather) □ Roman=Jupiter(Zu(?)-pitr)  BeginningclearthatZeusdwelledinmountainsandbroughtstormandthentransitionmade himfather  GreekZeusgoesfarback inantiquity;could'vehadcompetitionb/w2pantheons  Hasattributesthatare part ofhisnatures: □ Thunderbolt(b4tri-partitedivision,himandhisbrothershadtheirownweapon forgedbycyclopes) □ Aigis(sometimesaegis)->undersomethingpowerful(whatitmeansnow)butGreek meaningisvague,couldbeshieldforgedbyHephaestusforZeusandfronthashead ofMedusaorbea leathershieldthat'scoatedwithhideofgoat(aeg(?)greekprefix forgoat)->iswhat makesthenoisewhenthunderroars  aigisbearingZeus Warof troy:  aigismighthavetodowithZeus'sorigins->whengoat died,hideplacedonaigis □ These2attributesareconstantlyseen Zeushasmanysonsfightingwar,oneofemis Sarpedon  Only1othergodhas permissiontowieldaigis ->Athena(restdon'thavepower, - He'sdying,iswoundedinabattleatTroy authority,strengthtobearit) - Zeushesitates,knowinghecouldusehisgodmagicif  SeveralofZeus'sepithetsDikaios(Zeusofjustice),Panhellenios(ofalltheGreeks),Horkios hewantedto (oftheoath)(whentookoath,sworebyZeus) - AnankewastheonewhodecidedthatSarpedonwas  Goesfromskygod to progenetorofallmoralorder(?) todieat Troy  Zeushaslimitation:nottobeseenasallpowerfuldeity - Anankeissomethingthatdictatesthatifsomething  OnedeitycreditedwithmorepowerthenZeus:Ananke willhappen,willhappenandZeuscan'tviolateit  Isphysicallystuckatcertainage:perpetuallyafatherfigure □ Wellintomaturity ○ Ananke=necessity(iswhatneedstohappen) ○ Prescribedwaythingsneedtohappen □ Whitehair,whitebeard,signsofage - Zeuscanadlib/changethingsaroundabitbutcan't go □ Exceptions:inCretehearreferencestoZeusbeingworshippedincavesasspecifically againstAnanke MegasKouros(thegreatyoungman)  Butwillmostlybefatherfigure  HischiefconsortisHera - Hera ○ Can'treallyuseterm"married"toZeuscuz hetakesheras amate,there'snoceremony ○ IsZeus'ssister ○ Nothisonlysexualpartner,heonlyseekssexoutsidetheirunion  DefiningimpetusofHera'scharacter  Isarchetypeofjealoussworntype ○ ZeuswithHerahasseveralkids,only2thatare consistent  Ares(Godwhomanifestswar)->partof12 pantheon  Hebe(youth)->minorfigure ○ RelationshipwithZeusisstormy,sometimesviolent - Themis Zeus-DI-A ○ AnotherpartnerofZeus(she'stechnicallyhisaunt) ○ Producevariousoffspring  Eirene(peace)  Eunomie(goodgoverness)  Dike(justice)hencehe'scalledZeusDikaios - Poseidon-PO-SE-DA-WO-NE[POSIS] ○ WhenworldwasdividedandZeusgotsky,Poseidongotwater ○ NamePoseidonseemstotranspirefromGreekwordposis(spouse) ○ Namecanbetraced b
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