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Lec 7.pdf

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Department
Classics
Course
CLA204H5
Professor
Daniel Thornton
Semester
Summer

Description
Lec7 Tuesday,July26, 2011 6:06PM Hero/HeroicMyths - Mythshavingtodo withtheHero - ComesfromGreekwordhērωs - WillfulfillcertaincriteriathathavetodowithGods andhuman beings - Inownculturewhenwetalkaboutheroes,goeswithwillingnesstosacrificeoneselfforthegreatergood ○ Bitofaproblemwhenweconsiderancientperspectiveofhero - Dealingwithhumanbeingsasprotagonists,Godsaresecondary - InHomer,Herois noblebornmalewhoisalive ○ LaterGreekliterature,heroseemstobenoblefigure(wellborn)fromthedistantpast ○ Herocultsand worshipareofparamountimportanceofGreekreligion - Heroinmostgeneraltermisn'talwaysgoingto beconsideredwhatweinmodernperceptioncallthe "GoodGuy"(someonewhodoeswonderfulandhonorablethings) ○ Ancientperspectiveheroesareonethingaboveallothers:exceptional  Herobehaviorisexceptionalbehavior  i.e.Cleobis/Biton □ PointofexhaustionbroughtmothertofestivalofHera  Achilles □ RevengefordeathofbelovedpartnerinTrojanwar,slewhundredssinglehandedly  Oedipus □ AboutwhomOracletoldfatemostwouldn'twelcome □ Didmurderhismotherandsleep+havefamilywithmother  Allofthesecharactersinancientperspectivecanbeconsideredheroicb/cdidsomething(s) exceptionally - GreekconceptionofHeroissomeonewhostandsoutin,out,inbetweenmoral____ - Hero->archetype(reflectscertainoriginalkind/type,whichstandsout,undergoescertaindeedsand comestoeventualend) ○ Heroicarchetypecanbelookedatgenerically ○ JosephCampbell  InreferencetoGreekheroicmythsandinworldheroicmythandarchetypeofthehero  Hiswork:has servedsetofanalytictoolstolookat worldmythsbutalsoset ofconstructive toolsformythpoesis(processofmakingmyths)  He'sbetterdeemedmythographer - Canalso/monomycanbeappliedtoindividualexperienceaswellb/carchetypecanrunthrough subconscious,canrunexperiencesthroughourselves - Kornfieldadoptsthemonomythandadaptsittoourspiritualawakening - Perseus - Mostinfluentialbookisherowith1000facesb/chero isalwaysthesameevenifhe'sadifferenthero ○ Nothingnew… - CampbellwasstudentofCarlJung - Monomythisskeletononwhichdiffcultural,spiritualbogiesarebased - Bookbasedonideathatcertaincharacters fulfillrolesofarchetypesandcharactersrepeat ○ Minddividescharacterstoplayaroleinourlives(i.e.bestfriendarchetype,wiseoldman archetypeetc.) - Outlineofheroicmyth/stagesinhero'sjourney 1) Mythof heroarchetypetakesplaceinworldthat'salienandnew 2) Heroispresentedwithachallenge,acall,somethinghe/shehastodoto savetheuniverse,put foodonthetableorwhateveritis 3) Heroisreluctanttogo, feelsburdenistooheavy(i.e.LOTR,Frodorefusestotakethering) - Doesn'tfeelable - Fearoffacingtheunknown - Heroseeingchangeofmind 4) Heroencountersencouragementbywise(usuallyold)helper - Wiseoldpersonhashadexperiencebutforwhateverreasoncan'tdothetaskhimself 5) Heropassesthefirstthreshold - i.e.Dorothyisofftoseethewizard 6) Heroencounterssmalltrialsandhelpers - LukeSkywalkerleadingChewbacca - Implicationthatyoucan'tdoit alone 7) Herocomestothe cave,whateverthecaveis(notalwaysacave,isan importantmetaphor) - It'stheherojustbeforesteppingintothebigtrial - OdiseisinpitsofHadesabouttodescendto#8 8) The ordeal,thesupremeordeal - Catabosis - Fortheaudiencecanbeseemedasmetaphoricdeath,isthelowpointforthehero 9) Theheroseizestheobject - i.e.PrincessLeah - Whateveritis,it'stheobjecthe/shecameseeking 10) Thejourneybackbegins - Atthispointherogotwhat hecame forbut workto be done,hasn'tdefeatedtheenemy, hasgottentheelixir(object)andhastomakeit hisown 11) Campbellcallsitresurrection(givesabsoluteideaofCatabosis),morelikerestoration - Escapedthedeathstraw,donewhathe'sneededtodoand headshomeandfacesthe challengesheneedstoface 12) Returnswithobjectorsimplyreturnshome - Whateverobject/trialis,completesthemandthenheadshome ^thisorderfitsmostbutthereare manyimplicationsinheroicmyths - AnotherheroicexaminationbyVladimirPropp ○ Morphology:processofstudyingform,onoutline:morphologyofthefolktalewhichPropp published ○ Wasuniquetoit'stimeand influentialinstudyofnarratives ○ In1920s and 30s inRussia,wasn'tverycomfortabletimetobean intellectualsomorphologyof folktaledidn'tcomeintolighttill1958throughan Englishtranslation ○ Examines100folktalesanddevelopsconceptoffunction - Function=elementaloffolktale,isunderstoodasanactof a character - DefinefromaPOVit'ssignificance… ○ Thereare32 definedfunctions,showedthatallofthecharactertypeshavepotentialtobefitinto thesevariousfunctions. ○ Someofem: - Thehelper □ Heroandorsearchers - Princess □ Similartoobject - Father □ Notalwayswiseoldhelper,canopposehero/searchers - Falseheroforantihero □ Hansolo(notarchetyperunningthroughasmuch as LukeSkywalker)  Notasnobleas LS intendedtobe - Hero/searcherbeingthecentralportionofnarrativeinwhichotherfunctionsrelateto(orbit around) ○ Eachfunctionperformedbysinglecharacterwerecomprisedintosinglesentenceswhichwere thencomprisedintosinglewordsandthensinglelettersi.e.seeS/H/P ○ Potentialofoverlapandpotentialofthingsdon'tfit - Falsehero/antiherowontalwaysbehaveacertainwaybutgenerallyhisfunctionwillalways bethatcertainway ○ 4geographiclocationsforheroes: 1) Home1 2) Ontheway(thequestetc.) 3) Onthewayback 4) Home2 - Doesn’talwaysmeanreturnback,i.e.FrodostaysinShierfora littlewhilebutthenleaves ○ Dealingwithnarrativeskeleton Perseus - Argoswaswealthybronzeageinhabitation - ResidentsofArgoscalledArgies - MostfamousbronzeagesitesinArgosare Mycenaeand Tiryns ○ Storiesgoasfarback as 2 millenniumDCE ○ Tirynswas700 yearsago, 1400-1200 BCE reachedheightandthenstartedfallingapart - AnymythsofArgoswouldbethatof IO (she'sfemale,heroriginsareconfused.Inmostaccountsshe'sa priestessofHera.OnedayZeusobservedherandthenheperusedher.Somesourcessaidsherejected hisadvancestillhemadeherfathermakehergointothefieldswhereZeustookacloudformand took Ioandtriedto seduceherandIo becamepregnant.Zeusdidn'twantHeratoknowso hetransformedIo intocowandHeraisn't stupid,sheknewandwantedcowsoZeushad to givethecow.HeraplacedIo underthechargeofmonstrosity->ArgosPanoptes(Argostheallseeing),hisepithetmeansthathe alwayshadhiseyeonherand latermythssaidthat sincehehad 100 eyes,hiseyessleptatdifferent intervalssoIowillneverboutofhissite.ZeusdecidedtotakefurtheractionsandsentHermesandsaid toslayArgos.He wenttoIo and Argoesandtook aformof shepherdandtoldstoriesthatboredArgos andallofArgos'eyesfellasleepandHermesthenkilledArgosandfreedIo.(Hermeshasepithet Argeiphontes,Argosslayer).HeraknewIowasfreeandplaguedherwithgagpye(?)Gadflyisconstantly onthecow andkeptstingingIountilshebecamemadewiththeitchinessandIowanderedarounduntil shecouldfindaplacewhereshecouldfindreliefandendedupinBosporus(cowpasturecrapthing?) andthereshemetPrometheus(wherehewaschainedthere,livereatenforeternity) PrometheustriedtoconsoleIoandsaidIowilleventuallyreturntohumanformandwillgivebirthto oneofthegreatestheroes.ShewanderstoEgyptandsomewherethereshesettlesandZeusreturnsher tohumanformand shegavebirthto Zeus'son,Epaphos(meanstheonetouched,perhapstouchedby thegods?) EpaphoseventuallybecomeskinginEgyptandjoinswithalocalwomannamedMemphis(isnameof Egyptiantown.InrelationtoArgosseegeographicrelations)andhavedaughternamedLibya(isitthe countryormythologicalcharacter?Movedtogeographicallegoryfrommythologicalallegory).Shewas thenjoined/rapedbyPoseidonandtohimshegavebirthtoBelosad Agenor.Agenorbecomeskingof placeinLebanoncalledTyre.HimandhiswifegivebirthtosonnamedPhoenixwhowasconsidered founderofPhenitions.Hehasseveralkids:Cadmus,EuropaandCilix.Beloshas2sons:Aegyptos(Greek wordforEgypt)and Danäos.Aegyptoshad50 sonsand Danäoshad 50 daughters.Aegyptosorderedhis sonstomarry daughtersofDanäosand he fearedthesemarriagessoherescuedhisdaughters(orsohe thought)andbroughtthemtohomelandofArgos.SonsofAegyptosreturntoArgosthemselvestooand whentheycomethereDanäosgivehisdaughtersfreelytoavoidwarbuttoldhisdaughterstokilltheir husbandsontheweddingnight.AllofthembutHypermnestra(supermindful)killedtheirhusbands. Hypermnestra'shusbandLynceuskilledDanäosforrevenge.LynceusandHypermnestrafoundedfuture ofArgiekings,theDanae(?)dynasty. ^havegeographicallegorytryingtoexplainhowEgyptisrelatedtoArgos DanäosisrelatedtoDan whichisatribewhichcouldberelatedtoHebrewsbutdunno. LynceusandHpyermnestrastartnewdynastyandhavesonAbasand becomesking.Hehad2 sons: AcrisiusandProteusandidsthemtoruleultimately(seasonbyseasonoryearbyyear)butthe quarreledaskidsandasmenso much that theydividedtheland.AcrisiusruledArgosandProteus Tiryns.AcrisiushasdaughterDanäe.Hewantssonsandoraclesays that Danäewillhaveason whowill killAcrisius.HedecidestohideawayDanäe.Assoonassheenterssexualmaturityshe'sisolatedbut thenZeusnoticesher.Hecouldn'tpenetratetheundergroundtower/caveanddecidedaninnovation. HehadintercoursewithDanäethroughtheformofshowerofgoldand she'simpregnatedandprophecy HehadintercoursewithDanäethroughtheformofshowerofgoldand she'simpregnatedandprophecy willcomethrough.Hedecidestodrownherassoonas shegivesbirth,Danäeandhersonare thrownin achestand thrownto seabut Zeusnoticesanddecidessomethinghastobedone.HeasksPoseidonto calmthewaterand Danäeand Perseus(hewhosacks/asinattacks)surviveanduplandofSeriphos. ChestwashesupthereandarerescuedbyfarmernamedDiktys,treatsthemwellandraisesPerseusas hisownson.Diktyshasbrotherwhois verywelloff,namedPolydektes(themanygrasper,thestealerof allthings)whowantsDanäeandsodoesDiktysand Perseusisalittleboyandistorn betweenwhatthe 2brothersandwhathis momwants.PolydektesrealizesPerseusisgoingtobeathreat whenhegrows upandif hewantsDanäe,heneedsto getridof Perseus.Heplotsandsayshe'llmakehimselfan importantmanandhe'llmarryaprincessand orderedeveryonetosupplyhimwithhedná(bridal gifts/dowrybutnotreallydowry,giftsthatmakehimamoresuitablegift).Perseusisapparentlybastard sonofseawomanand seaman and comesto Polydektesemptyhandedandjeersathimand encourageshisofficialstodothesame.PerseuspledgestogivePolydektesanythinghedesires(called therashpromise).PolydektesdecidedhewantsheadoftheGorgontowhichPerseusagreed. Polydektessaidhecouldn'treturntoSeriphosuntilhegotitandthereforePolydektessealedPerseus' fatewithoutevenknowingit. Gorgon:whateversheis/howevershelooksdependsonmaterialrepresentationandforoneofem,the appearancewasenoughtosetpeopletostone Sthyno Euryalē Medusa:wasmortal,repulsive,sometimesportrayedasdaughterofDemeter - OnestorysaysDemeterwasrapedbyPoseidoninherowntempleandtodisarmDemeterhe turnedintoastallion - IdeaiswhateverproducesMedusa,isn'tdonewithconsent - Anotherstorywasmortalwasrapedby Poseidon - Itwasherfaultandheract of "hubris"soshegetsuglyform - Herfaultforseducingandhavesexintemplesowaspunished - Perseuswanderedaimlessly,couldn'tfindgorgonsohewenttoGraiai(thegreyones) - Deino,PamphredoandEnyo(namessomewherealongthelinesofdread,alarmandhorror) - Theseelderlycreatureswhichcouldbeseenasanaloguetogorgons,haveoneeyeandonetooth andhaveto shareitamong themselves - Aren'thuman/woman,areimmortal,divine - Perseusseizestheeyewhilesisterswerepassingittoeachothersotheywereblind.Hesaidhe wouldn'tgiveeye+tooth(?)untiltheytoldhimwherehecouldgetheadofgorgon - Meanwhileotherscomealongtoassisthim:HermesandAthena.Hermeshelpshisdescendantand Athena(oneoftheonlyGreekgodswho'salmostalwaysnice).HermesgivesPerseusapairoftalaria(his specialsneakers)AthenagaveswordandshieldbothofwhichwereforgedbyHephaestosandwould remainuntarnished.AtthispointHadessendsagift;hisarticleofclothingofinvisibilityandkibisis (untearablesac/clothing)whichwasforthefulfillmentofthepromises - Perseustooktotheocean(watersofthebeyond)andofftot
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