Lecture notes 7-12.docx

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Communication, Culture and Technology
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Hisham Ragab

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Lecture notes 7-12 CCT Lecture 7  Core Themes: o Communication practices differ around the world o Media affordances can encourage new practices o Contemporary communications can challenge the social order  In the news this week o School Cellphone ban spawns niche storage market. o NYB (New York Board) of Edu. Banned use of electronics in public schools since 1980 o Vernon Alcoser solved solution by providing mobile storage during school hours  What is text messaging and how did it happen? o Text messages or Short message service (SMS) is a mechanism of delivery of short messages over the mobile networks. o It is a store and forward way of transmitting messages to and from mobiles. o The message (text only) from the sending mobile is stored in a central short message center (SMS) which then forwards it to the destination mobile. o In the case that the recipient is not available, the SMS is stored and sent later  Where did it begin? o Paging – Japanese o Teenagers o Numeric Phonetics o Asia – Early 1990’s o Europe – Mid 1990’s o North America – 2004-2005  Why? o Types of mobile  Smartphone: category of mobile phones that enable users to read email, take phones, and browse the internet  Mobile vs. portable distinction blurred. o Literacy and contemporary media  Dominant and persistent social narrative that test messaging is negatively affecting literacy of young people.  Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute, and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts.  Is this text message correlated with falling literacy?  ‘texting craze’ – Visco, 2008  OR  ‘false alarm’ – Dourin, 2010  Textese – a written vocabulary that has emerged from texting practice  Initialism – eg lol  Letter/number homophones – gr8  Contractions or shortenings – cuz, u, etc,  Emoticons -   Deletion of unnecessary words, vowels, punctuation, capitalism, etc. o Beneficial communication function of Text  Hybrid Register Page 1 of 11  Formal and informal language allowing a variation in tone within the context of a given message  Navigating social relationships in the experimentation of identities o Memory Theories  Retroactive Interference  Information presented at a later time may interfere with information presented at an earlier time – spelling words lost!  Decay  Learned information that is not accessed may be less accessible over time  Low road/High road (Salomon & Perkins, 1989)  Exposure to textese would transfer abbreviations unconsciously to task requiring similar processes (e.g. informal writing; but make a conscious decision to use Standard English for formal contexts).  Situated learning (brown et al, 1989)  Using textese would transfer to more general writing because it is learned and then transferred unintentionally.  What is Standard English? o Text messaging and textese have different relationships with literacy o More conscious decisions (high-road) among more educated students o Those with poorer literacy correlated to low-road tendencies – failure to code switch  Etiquette o Mobile phone use brings pressure to bear on well-established social conventions  How to act when engaged with others in shared spaces  Alerts and choices  What to do versus what we ought to do  Moral rules and social order o Game – mobile etiquette  Is it okay to:  Text and drive?  Text in class?  Text a friend in the same room as you?  Answer a call on a date?  Sext? o Social/cultural impact  Mobile technology has been linked (if only by popular media) to anti-social trends:  Mobs  Sexual communication  Vehicle for bad manners, cheating, escaping school, etc.  Co-constitution vs. technological determinism o Health Implications  There is very little proven link to direct health impacts and mobile devices  There is minimal risk  Living near cell phone towers is a concern, but there is not a proven direct health linkage  Why is it difficult to find evidence of how harm may be occurring with mobile phones? o Environmental Concerns  Aesthetic aspects of environment – towers  Disruption to migrating bird population  Environmental impact due to the manufacturing and disposal of the devices o Surveillance  Mobile phone is implicated in declines in freedom  Cell phones can be used as mobile tracking devices by government, parents, partners, employers Page 2 of 11 o Emergencies  During emergencies cell towers can help pinpoint a phone’s location for police ambulance, of fire personnel o Women & mobile phones  In India, mobile phones have become symbolic of a new independence  Mobile phones used for rural health, maintain tires  General purpose technology o In the past 5 years, mobile phones have moved into the camera and video recorder market o Why?  Phone is always with consumers  Phone is integrated into the consumer’s life o Twin capabilities – being always present and being a link to the social use of the technology. CCT Lecture 8  The Fifth sense – touch, and haptic technologies  In the news o The hidden danger of touchscreens – infoworld, 2012 o Addiction vs dependency on cellphone use o Strains eyes o Diseases caused by unnatural postures and forces o Develops carpel tunnel, possibly (RSI) – Repeated motion injuries o Smartphones, tablets, and now touchscreen PCs all can lead to stress-related injuries of your hands, arms, back, and eyes -- unless you use them right.  Agenda o Dourish – getting in touch (2001) o Sheril hook – guest speaker o iPads and autism project  CORE THMES o A. tangible computing reduces the idea of a separation between virtual and physical o B. Designing for tablets using personas  Getting in touch – Dourish (2001) o Style of interaction concerns not simply the set of physical devices, or the set of physical devices, but also the ways in which the computer fits into our environments and our lives o Ubiquitous computing and virtual reality distinctions o Dataglove/peregrine glove  Tangible computing – design trends o Interacting with the virtual is translated into interacting with the physical o Boundary between the virtual and the physical world o --Design principles of tangible computing  Physicality – technology is the world.  Integration – of computation and the artifact.  Communication – what is important is not simply what they do but what they convey and how they convey it. o Value things that are in the physical world McEwen – iPad and special needs adult’s project  The Community Integration through Cooperative Education (CICE) Program o A unique college program specifically for adults with developmental disabilities o Give them programs like Asketch and Drawcast, also Artrage. Page 3 of 11 CCT lecture 8-9 layover  Adults engaging in peer learning and active learning  Became self-guiding. Developing for the children behind the “label” Lessons from Beverley School  *Ipad released in April 2010  Jody Chan assisting Professor McEwen with research of children and iPods touches.  Increased awareness of communication disorders has encouraged more focus on the development of AAC technologies. (Alternative and Augmentative (Create additional meaning) Communication devices) o Eg. Alternative communication could be Brail or ASL (American Sign Language) o Studies that investigate the potential for assistive technologies for communication mostly focus on computer-assisted instruction and Voice Output Communication Aids (VOCA’s) o VOCAs have been more successful with children with more severe forms of communication disorders.  Some are very simple and can be programmed with single words  Others are more sophisticated and include graphic symbols or pictures, activated using a finger, hand, optical pointer, head stick, etc. o The use of video modelling delivered via handheld devices (iPod) and a system of least prompts were used to improve transitional behaviours for students with ASD in the general classroom setting.  Social interaction problems occur in autism students o They don’t read facial expressions well o They’re very narrow in interest o Problem with speech  But design models and principles for creating AAC solutions are very minimal o Particularly ones that focus on lower functioning children with communicative disorders. o Data from 48 experiments suggest that children prefer computer programs with higher intention o A web-based survey designed for involving children with and without disabilities in the design of assistive technology devices with the primary school environment  The present study seeks to narrow this gap o Can we provide better tools for AAC developers? o Longitudinal study conducted from Feb 2010-June2011 o Examined the use of AAC software on iPod and iPad devices by children with communicative disorders – including but not limited to autism.  The participants are… o 70 children aged 4-13 with special needs from a Toronto Elementary School (kindergarten to Grade 8) o 12 teachers collected intensive data from 36/70 children over 2 years. o Most are non-verbal  72% non-verbal  9% verbal  19% Partially-verbal  Variables of interest o Attention span.  Measured using the application “Count to 100” by midnightsoft  Half of the students (younger and/or with lower developmental abilities) o Receptive identification of 2D objects  Measured using the application “ABA Basic” by KV Adaptive LLC  Half of the students (older and/or with higher developmental abilities) o Communication skills and abilities.  Measured using the communication Matric (Rowland, 2004)  All of the students. Page 4 of 11  PROCEDURE: o 1. Attention span  The teacher asked the students to follow the counting on the iPod/iPad application “Count to 100” by Midnightsoft  The Teacher recorded the last number that the student could attend to  Counting to 1’s corresponded to the time that the child was engaging in the activity.  This was conducted 3-4 times per week over approx. 3 months. o 2. Receptive ID of 2-D Objects  The teacher used the application “ABA Basic” by KV Adaptive LLC, which provided the ability to run a discrete-trial using any three photos.  To conduct each trial, the teacher picked 3 images that were familiar to the student, and defined the object to identify.  The teacher then requested the child to select a photo named and described by the teacher by touching the appropriate image.  The number of successful and unsuccessful attempts out of a total number were stored by the application. Teachers recorded these scored.  This was conducted 3-4 times per week over approx. 3 months. o 3. Communication skills/abilities  Teachers administered a communications assessment using the communication matrix to each of the 36 students to establish a baseline measure for their communication skills/abilities  The Communication Matrix is..  “An assessment tool designed to pinpoint exactly how an individual is communicating and to provide a framework for determining logical communication goals”  Designed for professionals and parents to document the communication skills of children who have severe or multiple disabilities – sensory, motor and cognitive impairments  Developed by Dr. Charity Rowland of Oregon Health and Science University o Data analysis entailed…  1. Creating a visual representation of the data  On paper first, then on computer  Organized on a 2 axes: level of communication skills MASTERED and EMERGING  2. Forming groups of individuals with similar communication skills  Data appeared in clusters o Cluster analysis o The 7 unique groups are used to develop a set of design personas.  What is a persona?  The notion of personas was created by Alan Cooper in his 1999 book The Inmates Are Running the Asylum  “A persona is a user archetype you can use to help guide decisions about product features…personas are synthesized from a series of ethnographic interviews with real people, then captured in 1-2 page descriptions that include behaviour patterns, goals, skills, attitudes, and environment, with a few fictional personal details to bring the persona to life” – Kim Goodwin, 2001  Why are we using personas?  The developed personas describe the skill profiles and characteristics of children with communication disorders  The proposed AAC personas can be used by AAC software developers and designers more generally to create more effective software for children affected by communication disorders Page 5 of 11  Cluster A. – Meet Aiden – a 12 year old boy with Cerebral Palsy.  Tight muscles and joints, unsteady gait, speech and vision problems  Rarely interacts with his peers  Emerging in the most basic behaviours, e.g. kicking his legs to express discomfort, and smiling to attract attention  Aiden’s behaviours are not used to communicate intent
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