Lecture notes 7-12
CCT Lecture 7
o Communication practices differ around the world
o Media affordances can encourage new practices
o Contemporary communications can challenge the
In the news this week
o School Cellphone ban spawns niche storage market.
o NYB (New York Board) of Edu. Banned use of
electronics in public schools since 1980
o Vernon Alcoser solved solution by providing mobile
storage during school hours
What is text messaging and how did it happen?
o Text messages or Short message service (SMS) is a
mechanism of delivery of short messages over the
o It is a store and forward way of transmitting messages to and from mobiles.
o The message (text only) from the sending mobile
is stored in a central short message center (SMS)
which then forwards it to the destination mobile.
o In the case that the recipient is not available, the
SMS is stored and sent later
Where did it begin?
o Paging – Japanese
o Numeric Phonetics
o Asia – Early 1990’s
o Europe – Mid 1990’s
o North America – 2004-2005
o Types of mobile
Smartphone: category of mobile phones that enable users to read email, take phones,
and browse the internet
Mobile vs. portable distinction blurred.
o Literacy and contemporary media
Dominant and persistent social narrative that test messaging is negatively affecting
literacy of young people.
Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute,
and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts.
Is this text message correlated with falling literacy?
‘texting craze’ – Visco, 2008
‘false alarm’ – Dourin, 2010
Textese – a written vocabulary that has emerged from texting practice
Initialism – eg lol
Letter/number homophones – gr8
Contractions or shortenings – cuz, u, etc,
Deletion of unnecessary words, vowels, punctuation, capitalism, etc.
o Beneficial communication function of Text
Page 1 of 11 Formal and informal language allowing a variation in tone within the context of
a given message
Navigating social relationships in the experimentation of identities
o Memory Theories
Information presented at a later time may interfere with information presented
at an earlier time – spelling words lost!
Learned information that is not accessed may be less accessible over time
Low road/High road (Salomon & Perkins, 1989)
Exposure to textese would transfer abbreviations unconsciously to task
requiring similar processes (e.g. informal writing; but make a conscious
decision to use Standard English for formal contexts).
Situated learning (brown et al, 1989)
Using textese would transfer to more general writing because it is learned and
then transferred unintentionally.
What is Standard English?
o Text messaging and textese have different relationships with literacy
o More conscious decisions (high-road) among more educated students
o Those with poorer literacy correlated to low-road tendencies – failure to code switch
o Mobile phone use brings pressure to bear on well-established social conventions
How to act when engaged with others in shared spaces
Alerts and choices
What to do versus what we ought to do
Moral rules and social order
o Game – mobile etiquette
Is it okay to:
Text and drive?
Text in class?
Text a friend in the same room as you?
Answer a call on a date?
o Social/cultural impact
Mobile technology has been linked (if only by popular media) to anti-social trends:
Vehicle for bad manners, cheating, escaping school, etc.
Co-constitution vs. technological determinism
o Health Implications
There is very little proven link to direct health impacts and mobile devices
There is minimal risk
Living near cell phone towers is a concern, but there is not a proven direct health linkage
Why is it difficult to find evidence of how harm may be occurring with mobile phones?
o Environmental Concerns
Aesthetic aspects of environment – towers
Disruption to migrating bird population
Environmental impact due to the manufacturing and disposal of the devices
Mobile phone is implicated in declines in freedom
Cell phones can be used as mobile tracking devices by government, parents, partners,
Page 2 of 11 o Emergencies
During emergencies cell towers can help pinpoint a phone’s location for police
ambulance, of fire personnel
o Women & mobile phones
In India, mobile phones have become symbolic of a new independence
Mobile phones used for rural health, maintain tires
General purpose technology
o In the past 5 years, mobile phones have moved into the camera and video recorder market
Phone is always with consumers
Phone is integrated into the consumer’s life
o Twin capabilities – being always present and being a link to the social use of the technology.
CCT Lecture 8
The Fifth sense – touch, and haptic technologies
In the news
o The hidden danger of touchscreens – infoworld, 2012
o Addiction vs dependency on cellphone use
o Strains eyes
o Diseases caused by unnatural postures and forces
o Develops carpel tunnel, possibly (RSI) – Repeated motion injuries
o Smartphones, tablets, and now touchscreen PCs all can lead to stress-related injuries of your
hands, arms, back, and eyes -- unless you use them right.
o Dourish – getting in touch (2001)
o Sheril hook – guest speaker
o iPads and autism project
o A. tangible computing reduces the idea of a separation between virtual and physical
o B. Designing for tablets using personas
Getting in touch – Dourish (2001)
o Style of interaction concerns not simply the set of physical devices, or the set of physical devices,
but also the ways in which the computer fits into our environments and our lives
o Ubiquitous computing and virtual reality distinctions
o Dataglove/peregrine glove
Tangible computing – design trends
o Interacting with the virtual is translated into interacting with the physical
o Boundary between the virtual and the physical world
o --Design principles of tangible computing
Physicality – technology is the world.
Integration – of computation and the artifact.
Communication – what is important is not simply what they do but what they convey
and how they convey it.
o Value things that are in the physical world
McEwen – iPad and special needs adult’s project
The Community Integration through Cooperative Education (CICE) Program
o A unique college program specifically for adults with developmental disabilities
o Give them programs like Asketch and Drawcast, also Artrage.
Page 3 of 11 CCT lecture 8-9 layover
Adults engaging in peer learning and active learning
Developing for the children behind the “label” Lessons from Beverley School
*Ipad released in April 2010
Jody Chan assisting Professor McEwen with research of children and iPods touches.
Increased awareness of communication disorders has encouraged more focus on the development of AAC
technologies. (Alternative and Augmentative (Create additional meaning) Communication devices)
o Eg. Alternative communication could be Brail or ASL (American Sign Language)
o Studies that investigate the potential for assistive technologies for communication mostly focus
on computer-assisted instruction and Voice Output Communication Aids (VOCA’s)
o VOCAs have been more successful with children with more severe forms of communication
Some are very simple and can be programmed with single words
Others are more sophisticated and include graphic symbols or pictures, activated using a
finger, hand, optical pointer, head stick, etc.
o The use of video modelling delivered via handheld devices (iPod) and a system of least prompts
were used to improve transitional behaviours for students with ASD in the general classroom
Social interaction problems occur in autism students
o They don’t read facial expressions well
o They’re very narrow in interest
o Problem with speech
But design models and principles for creating AAC solutions are very minimal
o Particularly ones that focus on lower functioning children with communicative disorders.
o Data from 48 experiments suggest that children prefer computer programs with higher intention
o A web-based survey designed for involving children with and without disabilities in the design of
assistive technology devices with the primary school environment
The present study seeks to narrow this gap
o Can we provide better tools for AAC developers?
o Longitudinal study conducted from Feb 2010-June2011
o Examined the use of AAC software on iPod and iPad devices by children with communicative
disorders – including but not limited to autism.
The participants are…
o 70 children aged 4-13 with special needs from a Toronto Elementary School (kindergarten to
o 12 teachers collected intensive data from 36/70 children over 2 years.
o Most are non-verbal
Variables of interest
o Attention span.
Measured using the application “Count to 100” by midnightsoft
Half of the students (younger and/or with lower developmental abilities)
o Receptive identification of 2D objects
Measured using the application “ABA Basic” by KV Adaptive LLC
Half of the students (older and/or with higher developmental abilities)
o Communication skills and abilities.
Measured using the communication Matric (Rowland, 2004)
All of the students.
Page 4 of 11 PROCEDURE:
o 1. Attention span
The teacher asked the students to follow the counting on the iPod/iPad application
“Count to 100” by Midnightsoft
The Teacher recorded the last number that the student could attend to
Counting to 1’s corresponded to the time that the child was engaging in the
This was conducted 3-4 times per week over approx. 3 months.
o 2. Receptive ID of 2-D Objects
The teacher used the application “ABA Basic” by KV Adaptive LLC, which provided the
ability to run a discrete-trial using any three photos.
To conduct each trial, the teacher picked 3 images that were familiar to the student, and
defined the object to identify.
The teacher then requested the child to select a photo named and described by the
teacher by touching the appropriate image.
The number of successful and unsuccessful attempts out of a total number were stored
by the application. Teachers recorded these scored.
This was conducted 3-4 times per week over approx. 3 months.
o 3. Communication skills/abilities
Teachers administered a communications assessment using the communication matrix
to each of the 36 students to establish a baseline measure for their communication
The Communication Matrix is..
“An assessment tool designed to pinpoint exactly how an individual is
communicating and to provide a framework for determining logical
Designed for professionals and parents to document the communication skills
of children who have severe or multiple disabilities – sensory, motor and
Developed by Dr. Charity Rowland of Oregon Health and Science University
o Data analysis entailed…
1. Creating a visual representation of the data
On paper first, then on computer
Organized on a 2 axes: level of communication skills MASTERED and EMERGING
2. Forming groups of individuals with similar communication skills
Data appeared in clusters
o Cluster analysis
o The 7 unique groups are used to develop a set of design personas.
What is a persona?
The notion of personas was created by Alan Cooper in his 1999 book The
Inmates Are Running the Asylum
“A persona is a user archetype you can use to help guide decisions about
product features…personas are synthesized from a series of ethnographic
interviews with real people, then captured in 1-2 page descriptions that include
behaviour patterns, goals, skills, attitudes, and environment, with a few
fictional personal details to bring the persona to life” – Kim Goodwin, 2001
Why are we using personas?
The developed personas describe the skill profiles and characteristics of
children with communication disorders
The proposed AAC personas can be used by AAC software developers and
designers more generally to create more effective software for children
affected by communication disorders
Page 5 of 11 Cluster A. – Meet Aiden – a 12 year old boy with Cerebral Palsy.
Tight muscles and joints, unsteady gait, speech and vision problems
Rarely interacts with his peers
Emerging in the most basic behaviours, e.g. kicking his legs to express
discomfort, and smiling to attract attention
Aiden’s behaviours are not used to communicate intent