CCT109 – Lecture 5
October 10, 2013.
Digitization of Text, Fair Use, eBooks, and „the Death of Newspapers‟
1. Picture superiority effect
2. Theories of visual perception
3. Digitization of text
4. Fair-use, eBooks and the death of newspapers
a) Contemporary communication technologies disrupt traditional business modules
b) Contemporary communication technologies disrupt traditional legal definitions
Picture Superiority Effect
One of the most pervasive findings in cognitive psychology is that pictures are more memorable
than their verbal counterparts. Studies have shown that after 30 seconds, pictures are more easily
recalled or recognized than words.
Symbols, pictograms, and icons are widely used components of user interfaces in ICT
applications and services, e.g. for navigation, status indication and function invocation.
Symbols: represents a meaning
Pictograms: images that represent a word; they‟re symbolic representations of an object or an
Icons: a graphic on a visual display terminal that represents both functions (actions) and objects
on the computer system. Icons may represent a file, folder, application or device on a computer
Well-designed icons and symbols can have the following advantages over written commands and
They can be:
o More distinctive
o More efficient for denoting spatial attributes
o Easier to recognize and remember over long periods of time
o Easier and faster to learn when the size of the symbol set is small
o Language independent
Icons are time sensitive, culturally relevant and poorly designed icons are highly problematic.
5 Guidelines for Good Icon Design
Apple Human interface guidelines (2008) recommend using one easily recognized object,
because the basic shape or silhouette of an icon can help users to quickly identify it. CCT109 – Lecture 5
October 10, 2013.
Ziegler and Fahnrich (1988) also state that graphical symbols should be constructed with
as few graphical components as possible – usually not more than 2 or 3 components.
2. Test Icon Size with relevant user group
According to the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) standard, no
general recommendation can be given on the minimum acceptable size of an icon, this si
because what is acceptable depends on a number of parameters:
(a) the user
(b) viewing distance between the user and the interface
(c) the complexity of the symbol
(d) the display qualities of the medium including: the solution, the
contrast, the focus & the glare
(e) the viewing conditions including environmental factors such as
(f) physiological and psychological factors such a fatigue and
According to the ETSI Standard 201379 (1998), on some equipment, particulary small
machines, special manufacturing considerations of lack of space preclude the use of
graphical symbols of the exact recommended shape. In such cases, the design of the
graphical symbols used may be modified provided that their pattern differs as little as
practicable and still conveys clearly the intended meaning
An investigation by Fennell (2006) into personal preference for colour contrast of icons
revealed a preference for the following colour contrast option: black icons on a white
button, with a black surround.
The Apple human interface recommended using colour “judiciously” to help icon tell it‟s
story. Colour shouldn‟t be added just the make the icon ore colourful and smooth
gradients typically work better than sharp delineations of colour. Optimally 204 colours
should be used.
The position of labels with text or icons is crucial for an unfamiliar user with impaired
vision/ All too often labels are positioned in a way that they are obscured from the user‟s
view when the controls are being operated.
Both left hand use and right handed controls should also be considered. CCT109 – Lecture 5
October 10, 2013.
Theories of Visual Perception
- Johannes Kepler and the retinal image (1604) – discovered that retinal images are upside
down, and 2 dimensional.
- Perceptual hypotheses (1940s) – constructivists such as Herman von Helmholtz –
external world cannot be di