• What is creativity? The ability to use the imagination to develop new and original ideas
• Creating involves Koestler’s idea of bisociation. This is two mutually incompatible contexts or bisociation of matrices. This is bringing two
incompatible contexts -> similar to integrative thinking. Integrative thinking is two or more opposing ideas transformed into a creative resolution.
Like the snovel, this is a shovel plus a wheel barrel. Result is an easier way to shovel snow.
• Innovation is a newly invented or new way of doing things. INCREMENTAL VS. BREAKTHROUGH THINKING. EVOLUTIONARY VS.
• Constraints are limits placed on a designer. Designers are to turn a negative into a positive. Limits are seen as a negative.
• Design should be backed by reason, research and feasibility.
• Everyone has a role as designer in an organization.
• There are four kinds of design, according to JORGE FRASCARA:
o Design to support life
o Design to facilitate life
o To improve life
o Inconsequential design
• TO SUPPORT LIFE: promote and ensure health and safety. Like industrial safety, traffic safety and health education.
• TO FACILITATE LIFE: task oriented design, helps us do things better, faster and more easily, more efficiently.
• TO IMRPOVE LIFE: focuses on human dimensions. Spiritually, culturally, humour, pleasure, beauty. Good furniture, books, elegant solutions to
difficult communication problems.
• INCONSEQUENTIAL DESIGN: commercial design, doesn’t affect society. For the market economy. Affects the success of businesses and creates
jobs for people.
• Four areas of design, according to RICHARD BUCHANAN:
o Design of symbolic and visual communications
o Design of material objects
o Of activities and organized services
o Of complex systems or environments for living, working, playing, and learning.
• SYMBOLIC AND VISUAL: graphic design (typography, advertising, book and magazine production, illustration) photography, film and TV.
• MATERIAL OBJECTS: everyday products like clothes, tools, instruments, vehicles. Including the form (visual appearance) of the physical,
psychological, social and cultural relationships between products and human beings. UNITES ASPECTS OF ART, ENGINEERING, NATURAL
SCIENCE AND HUMAN SCIENCES.
• ACTIVITIES AND ORGANIZED SERVICES: management concern for logistics. Efficient sequences and schedules, logical decision making,
• COMPLEX SYSTEMS: role of design in sustaining, developing and integrating humans in to ecological and cultural environments. Architecture,
urban planning. SIM CITY THINGS. Functional analysis. • Design can change our culture.
• LINEAR APPROACH: consists of problem definition and problem solution. It is based on determinate problems with definite conditions. First you
analyze all the elements of the problem. Specify the requirements of a successful solution, synthesize, and combine to final plan of production.
ADVANTAGE: logical and precise. DISADVANTAGE: design thinking is not that simple. Problems rarely use linear approach.
• WICKED-PROBLEMS APPROACH: indeterminate problems. NO definitive conditions or limits. This is when information is confusing, many clients
and decision makers with conflicting values, and the system is confusing.
SKETCHING AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DESIGN NOTES PG 70
• Process of creative design is an interaction of arguments and moves. Arguments are the explorations of task and reasoning about it. Moves are the
psychical motions created by the arguments.
• The architect’s moves produce the drawings and they supply essential new food for the arguments.
• Mental images come from optical percepts, but they’re not identical copies. Mental images are easily wiped off the slate of memory. Optical
percepts can skip from image to image, they’re like computers.
• Mental images depend on percepts.
• Creative designing involves the solution to a problem.
• Sketches supply the mental image with assistance of optical image. Sketches permit the observer or theorist to catch a few stop-motion glimpses of
the flow of creation.
• Sketching is a dialectic process. The collection of arguments that bring about gradual transformation of images.
LECTURE NOTES WEEK 2.
• Think of adjectives when you’re choosing creative or art direction
• When things are placed diagonally, it suggests movement.
• Creative direction doesn’t just happen around art, doesn’t have to do with aesthetics. Can deal with design of things, methods, and services.
• COMMUNICATION THEORY: Communication is social interaction through messages; messages are made up of signs that convey meaning.
• SHANNON AND WEAVER DEFINED THREE LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS.
o Technical: how accurately are the symbols being communicated?
o Semantic: how precisely do the transmitted symbols convey the desired meaning
o Effectiveness: how effectively is the meaning received in the desired way
• SEMIOTICS: there are three branches:
o Syntactic: structure of the image. Line, colour, directionality, simplicity
o Semantic: meaning of image
o Pragmatic: effect of image.
• Drawings from mental images rely on generalities: o SIMPLIFICATIONS that remain in memory. You making it simpler for you to remember.
o ABSTRACTIONS from the multiplicity of individual experiences. Forming of general ideas from concrete examples, so you can remember
• The unfolding in the mind refers to a goal image. Abstraction is tied from the beginning to concrete images.
• A topological shape represents a range of possibilities without being tangibly committed to any one of them.
• A sketch can’t be identical with the guiding mental image
• PHYSICAL OBJECTS -> OPTICAL PERCEPTS -> MENTAL IMAGES (aims at) -> GOAL IMAGE (abstraction, simplifications, topological shapes,
organization from below and above, structural skeleton) -> CONCRETE IMAGES.
• Organization from below (from the inside-out/components). Organization from above (from the outside in/whole).
ANN TYLER PG 104 READING.
• The relationship of the audience to the communication process is viewed in diff ways.
o The object is seen as isolated as a formal esthetic expression, with the audience regarded as a spectator. This is when objects are
displayed with no discussion of communication goals. It severs the object from its relationship with the audience.
o Another view characterizes the audience as a passive reader in the communication process. The audience decodes and interprets it but
isn’t an active participant in the formation of the meaning
o The third is semiotics, which recognizes the specificity of the audience. The audience reads the literal message while interpreting the
signs that express the “iconic message” based on their beliefs.
o Another is a rhetorical analysis of design. The