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Lecture 2

CCT206H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Minimum Contacts, In Personam, Zippo


Department
Communication, Culture and Technology
Course Code
CCT206H5
Professor
Anthony Wensley
Lecture
2

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Look$at$Darrell$book$for$clear$example$ of$argument$for$jurisdiction$*Assignment$1*
If$you$put$something$on$Flickr's$account$in$Texas$you$become$liable$for$jurisdiction$in$Texas
Main$point$for$Chang$case$was$that$Chang's$photograph$was$on$Flickr's$account$in$Texas
One$of$the$basis$for$jurisdiction$is$being$in$a$physical$location
What$is$it?:$If$the$court$has$jurisdiction,$it$says$that$in$principle$we$can$hear$and$try$the$case
If$you$write$derogatory$comments$about$the$Thailand$government$and$travel$to$Thailand,$you$will$
find$yourself$under$Thailand$jurisdiction$and$can$be$held$responsible$for$your$comments
It$is$important$because$you$will$know$whether$your$actions$can$have$consequences$in$other$
jurisdiction's
Jurisdiction
The$power$to$legislate
The$power$to$adjudicate$(enforce$their$judgments)
The$power$to$enforce
We$will$concentrate$on$the$question$as$to$whether$a$particular$court$has$the$power$to$adjudicate,$to$
hear$or$judge$a$particular$case
What.is.jurisdiction.about?
Territoriality
Sometimes$a$bases$for$courts$having$jurisdiction
In$Canada$it$is$illegal$to$go$to$any$country$and$engage$with$child$prostitutes
§
Males$going$to$Thailand$and$engaging$with$child$prostitutes
Nationality-- what$is$an$example$of$where$this$is$applied?
International$agreement--International$Court$of$the$Hague
Bases.for.jurisdiction
Even$before$the$internet$there$were$cases$where$the$courts$might$reach$out$when$the$plaintiff$was$a$
resident$of$a$state,$province$or$country$but$the$defendant$was$a$resident$of$another$jurisdiction
However…
Generally$when$a$suit$(case)$is$brought$before$a$court$the$first$thing$it$decides$is$whether$it$has$a$
jurisdiction$(actually$it$may$consider$some$other$issues$first!).
Fine.Tuning.our.understanding.of.jurisdiction
Family$courts,$tax$courts,$constitutional
Does$the$court$have$jurisdiction$over$the$subject.matter.of$the$suit?
Is$the$suit$about$things$which$are$located$within$the$territory$over$which$the$court$has$control?$This$is$
called$in.rem.jurisdiction.
Otherwise$we$are$talking$about$personal$jurisdiction$or$in.personam.jurisdiction
Jurisdiction.pure.and.simple
General.jurisdiction.-this$is$where$there$are$extensive,$long$term$contacts$between$the$plaintiffs$
state,$province$or$country$and$the$defendant
Specific.jurisdiction.where$there$are$limited$contacts
Jurisdiction$over$non-resident$persons$(and$quasi-persons$such$as$corporations)$comes$in$two$flavors:
(Personal).In..personam.jurisdiction.in.the.case.of.non-residents.(general.ideas)
State$courts$can$reach-out$to$non-residents$because$of$the$existence$of$Long.Arm.Statutes
If$the$suit$is$covered$by$a$particular$Long.Arm.Statute.then$courts$must$ensure$that$due.process.is$
followed-- that$is$the$principles$of$fairness,$transparency$and$predictability$are$followed-- generally$this$
means$that$the$non-resident$has$minimum$contacts$with$the$state$in$question
In.personam.jurisdiction.in.the.case.of.non-residents.US
Purposeful$availment$(made$use$of$the$laws$and$protections$provided$by$the$state)
Suit$against$the$defendant$must$arise$from$action$of$the$defendant$in$the$state
Exercise$ of$jurisdiction$is$considered$to$be$reasonable
Three$part$test:
What.constitutes.minimum.contacts
You$write$an$article$ that$potentially$defames$someone$who$lives$in$another$country$and$upload$it$to$
your$webserver.$Can$the$individual$take$you$to$court?$Where?
Libel.is$written$slander.is$spoken
Examples
Facts
Zippo$is$synonymous$with$lighters,$other$people$using$it$is$reducing$their$value
Issues
Judgment
Influential,$first$time$someone$tried$to$come$up$with$a$rule
Court$had$jurisdiction
Outcome
The.Zippo.Case-US.Interstate.Jurisdiction
Lecture'2:'Issues'of'Jurisdiction
Thursday,$ January$14,$2016
8:49$AM

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Look$at$Darrell$book$for$clear$example$ of$argument$for$jurisdiction$*Assignment$1*
If$you$put$something$on$Flickr's$account$in$Texas$you$become$liable$for$jurisdiction$in$Texas
Main$point$for$Chang$case$was$that$Chang's$photograph$was$on$Flickr's$account$in$Texas
One$of$the$basis$for$jurisdiction$is$being$in$a$physical$location
What$is$it?:$If$the$court$has$jurisdiction,$it$says$that$in$principle$we$can$hear$and$try$the$case
If$you$write$derogatory$comments$about$the$Thailand$government$and$travel$to$Thailand,$you$will$
find$yourself$under$Thailand$jurisdiction$and$can$be$held$responsible$for$your$comments
It$is$important$because$you$will$know$whether$your$actions$can$have$consequences$in$other$
jurisdiction's
Jurisdiction
The$power$to$legislate
The$power$to$adjudicate$(enforce$their$judgments)
The$power$to$enforce
The$term$jurisdiction$has$many$meanings:
We$will$concentrate$on$the$question$as$to$whether$a$particular$court$has$the$power$to$adjudicate,$to$
hear$or$judge$a$particular$case
What.is.jurisdiction.about?
Territoriality
Sometimes$a$bases$for$courts$having$jurisdiction
In$Canada$it$is$illegal$to$go$to$any$country$and$engage$with$child$prostitutes
§
Males$going$to$Thailand$and$engaging$with$child$prostitutes
Nationality-- what$is$an$example$of$where$this$is$applied?
International$agreement--International$Court$of$the$Hague
Bases.for.jurisdiction
Even$before$the$internet$there$were$cases$where$the$courts$might$reach$out$when$the$plaintiff$was$a$
resident$of$a$state,$province$or$country$but$the$defendant$was$a$resident$of$another$jurisdiction
However…
Generally$when$a$suit$(case)$is$brought$before$a$court$the$first$thing$it$decides$is$whether$it$has$a$
jurisdiction$(actually$it$may$consider$some$other$issues$first!).
Fine.Tuning.our.understanding.of.jurisdiction
Family$courts,$tax$courts,$constitutional
Does$the$court$have$jurisdiction$over$the$subject.matter.of$the$suit?
Is$the$suit$about$things$which$are$located$within$the$territory$over$which$the$court$has$control?$This$is$
called$in.rem.jurisdiction.
Otherwise$we$are$talking$about$personal$jurisdiction$or$in.personam.jurisdiction
Jurisdiction.pure.and.simple
General.jurisdiction.-this$is$where$there$are$extensive,$long$term$contacts$between$the$plaintiffs$
state,$province$or$country$and$the$defendant
Specific.jurisdiction.where$there$are$limited$contacts
Jurisdiction$over$non-resident$persons$(and$quasi-persons$such$as$corporations)$comes$in$two$flavors:
(Personal).In..personam.jurisdiction.in.the.case.of.non-residents.(general.ideas)
State$courts$can$reach-out$to$non-residents$because$of$the$existence$of$Long.Arm.Statutes
If$the$suit$is$covered$by$a$particular$Long.Arm.Statute.then$courts$must$ensure$that$due.process.is$
followed-- that$is$the$principles$of$fairness,$transparency$and$predictability$are$followed-- generally$this$
means$that$the$non-resident$has$minimum$contacts$with$the$state$in$question
In.personam.jurisdiction.in.the.case.of.non-residents.US
Purposeful$availment$(made$use$of$the$laws$and$protections$provided$by$the$state)
Suit$against$the$defendant$must$arise$from$action$of$the$defendant$in$the$state
Exercise$ of$jurisdiction$is$considered$to$be$reasonable
Three$part$test:
What.constitutes.minimum.contacts
You$write$an$article$ that$potentially$defames$someone$who$lives$in$another$country$and$upload$it$to$
your$webserver.$Can$the$individual$take$you$to$court?$Where?
Libel.is$written$slander.is$spoken
Examples
Facts
Zippo$is$synonymous$with$lighters,$other$people$using$it$is$reducing$their$value
Issues
Judgment
Influential,$first$time$someone$tried$to$come$up$with$a$rule
Court$had$jurisdiction
Outcome
The.Zippo.Case-US.Interstate.Jurisdiction
Lecture'2:'Issues'of'Jurisdiction
Thursday,$ January$14,$2016 8:49$AM
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