-draws on the issue of how Hip Hop started out one way and then turned into a business, and, essentially,
the values of the genre faded
-it went from DJing, MC-ing, breakdancing and graffiti-writing to product-pushing
• the business man who combined commercials with the music video , or the business man who
started product placement in music videos
• “Shoot the music video and the ad at the same time” because no one wants to watch a straight
-Product placement in music videos has led to the “hip-hop” lifestyle in which teenagers dress the part
• Example: the kid from Scarborough in “Rhyme Pays” who owned about 50 pairs of shoes and all
of the G-Unit and Sean John clothing; he’s what Russell Simons hopes his product placements
will create – tons of teenagers who imitate the style they see in videos in order to sell the
product, or the style, rather.
Intertextuality – the allusion of a text to some other text.
-Used in magazines and narratives
-Magazines: Idea of putting a random series of advertisements and stories together because they are
“meant” to be together and this is the message you want to get across to the intended audience
• Cosmo magazine is for young girls who are sexually active; it gets across that women are
promiscuous and fashion-savvy; all of its ads are based on women looking good/being sexually
active, and the stories are all about how to impress men through sexualized acts or how to be
confident in your sexuality
• Vogue magazine focuses on ideas of femininity through products like shampoo and perfume that are
concerned with the body; stories about how to get a certain look; etc
-Narrative – According to Danesi, intertextuality in narrative, or the telling of a story that mirrors
reality, is the idea that one narrative text will always allude or refer to another narrative text by
“citation or implication”
• George Orwell’s, “Animal Farm” can be mapped and directly compared to the war criminals
Josef Stalin and Leon Trotsky
-Memorable frames of video footage on the news that most viewers will take as a reality, rather than
question the whereabouts of these scenes and when they actually took place.
-It is a means of finding out about the news without actually finding out for yourself in a complex socio-
-Viewers are trained to receive these in terms of the “reality of the news”
-These mediagenic moments draw on the major issue at hand of archive footage and how news reporters
and the people who formulate stories can just log onto a stock footage website and replay the same
clip over and over again when talking about the same story
• Is this clip even related to the issue at all?
• Why are, for example, the same protesters taking a stand every day that the story is being broadcasted? Or, the cottage example: Why are the reporters saying that everyone is going to
the cottage and showing traffic in the middle of Scarborough?
- Pop culture has generated 2 social phenomena. One was called “neomania” defined as a constant
carving 雕雕 for new objects of consumption and new forms of images, messages, and spectacles 雕雕雕雕.雕雕.
雕雕 of all kinds. The other phenomenon was called “ juvenilization”
- In no other area of pop culture is Barthes’notion of neomania more applicable than it is to the
domain of pop music. The only “constant” in pop music is that of “constant change.”
- E.g. “techno” groups, acid jazz bands, competing with new and recycled music.
- Pop culture has generated 2 social phenomena. One was call “juvenilization,” the