ECO261H5 Lecture Notes - Human Capital, Social Mobility, Occupational Segregation

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTM
Department
Economics
Course
ECO261H5
Professor
Theoies of Labour markets
1. Human Capital Theory
Jobs which require more effort, training, skills receive greater rewards
System where everyone competes openly and fairly for jobs
Outcome : efficient + productive economy , allocation of job rewards are fair
Riskier jobs have higher rewards
Emphasises supply side of labour market
Consensus view of society
Focuses on characteristics of people which determines their choice of career
Critique
Most dangerous/ un healthiest jobs are not always the best paid
Youth employment and their careers don’t match up to their amount of education
attained
Returns on education are obtained in CERTAIN industrial sectors/ employers
Ignores class structure and unequal power relationships
Certain groups are more likely to have higher education ( social structure, tuition fees,
advantaged children are “gifted” )
Based on HCT, we should see circulatory intergenerational mobility but often see
inheritance of mobility
Mobility often is class based not merit based
HTC cannot explain why gender segregated labour markets exist ( e.g. women are
employed mostly in certain industries with limited promotional opportunities)
Canadian labour market are not “ open” ( foreign born Canadians face less upward
mobility than others)
Existence of gender inequality (occupational gender segregation)
o Horizontal occupational gender segregation : concentration of men and women
in different occupations (women in job ghettos, men in shelters)
Traditional values of child rearing
Men oppose women entering workforce because of their fear of wage
undercuts
Definition of femininity and masculinity associated with jobs
Gendered nature of non- standard work
Even though occupational segregation is breaking down, it is due to
women moving into men dominated areas/ not vice versa
o Vertical segregation : gender divisions of tasks/ status/ responsibilities within
specific occupations
E.g. teaching ( men in more authority based positions such as principals)
Glass ceiling for professions such as lawyers
Wage gap due to wage discrimination and gender segregated structure
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Document Summary

Theoies of labour markets: human capital theory. Jobs which require more effort, training, skills receive greater rewards. System where everyone competes openly and fairly for jobs. Outcome : efficient + productive economy , allocation of job rewards are fair. Focuses on characteristics of people which determines their choice of career. Most dangerous/ un healthiest jobs are not always the best paid. Youth employment and their careers don"t match up to their amount of education attained. Returns on education are obtained in certain industrial sectors/ employers. Certain groups are more likely to have higher education ( social structure, tuition fees, Ignores class structure and unequal power relationships advantaged children are gifted ) Based on hct, we should see circulatory intergenerational mobility but often see inheritance of mobility. Mobility often is class based not merit based. Htc cannot explain why gender segregated labour markets exist ( e. g. women are employed mostly in certain industries with limited promotional opportunities)

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