Class Notes (1,000,000)
CA (620,000)
UTM (20,000)
Environment (1,000)
ENV100Y5 (900)
Lecture 10

ENV100Y5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: San Andreas Fault, Subduction, East African Rift


Department
Environment
Course Code
ENV100Y5
Professor
Barbara Murck
Lecture
10

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Rocks&break&and&release&sudden&energy&which&travels&through&the&earth&in&wave&
form (seismic&waves) :they&behave&kind&of&like&sound&waves.&
!
Are&compressional&waves&:kind&of&like&a&traffic&jam,&as&one&car&
moves&forward&and&the&space&contracts&between&u&and&the&other&
car.&
!
Thats&what's&happening&in&the&wave&(compressing&and&expanding)&
!
First&Type&:P&Wave&(Primary&Wave) :fastest,&arrive&to&the&other&side&of&the&
earth&faster&than&the&other&type
The&material&is&being&sheared/deformed.&(ie.&Think&of&slinky)
!
Second&type&:S&Wave&(Secondary&Wave) :travel&slower
Both&waves&behave&differently&when&they&travel&through&different&layers&in&
the&earth.&
Surface&waves&are&the&slowest&bc&they&travel&on&the&outside&not&taking&a&
short&cut&through&the&body&of&the&planet.&
!
Bending&wave&in&its&path&:refraction!
When&it&hits&the&boundary&it&starts&slowing&down&(ie.&Making&a&pencil&look&bent&
in&water&:light&waves&are&refracted)
!
We&can&tell&where&the&boundaries&are&inside&the&planet&and&about&the&different&
materials
!
"#$%&'(#)*%(+'*,#()$%&'(#(-./*!
0#$%&'#(+%*-$#1-2'
0)$%&'( )3%22-4#5%((#4+6-78+#-74'6#3-6'#93#/4(#./:7/*;#<-#5%((#4+6-78+#=%4'6/%.#
4+'>#2''*#4-#+%&'#(+'%6;#?-2'#-@#4+'#$%>(#4+'>#@/876'*#-74#4+'#-74'6#3-6'#/(#
./:7/*A;
!
"#)B%&'( )!
C%64+D(#.%>'6(#@6-=#4+'#/2(/*'#-74
E22'6#3-6'F#(-./*
!
G74'6#3-6'F#./:7/*
!
Mostly&iron,&nickel,&metal&(theoretical)&
!
H%*'#-@#I')J/#='4%.
<+'#3-6'!
J-4#%(#*'2('#%(#4+'#3-6'
!
H%*'#-@#6'.%4/&'.>#*'2('#6-3K
L$'%K#1-2'L#(5+'6'#?(:7/(+>A
!
Pressure&increases&as&we&go&inside&the&earthM
Lots&of&magna&originates&here&M
J'%6#='.4/28#5-/24
!
N(4+'2-(5+'6'
<+'#=%24.'!
O%(%.4
!
<+/2,#*'2('
!
G3'%2/3#367(4
P6%2/4'
!
Q'((#*'2(',#4+/2K
!
R-24/2'24%.#367(4
Geosphere&instead&of&lithosphere
!
R67(4#S#4-5#-@#=%24.'#T#./4+-(5+'6'
<+'#367(4!
B+>#*-#3-24/2'24(#=-&'#%6-72*U
V-4#6-3K#?.-$#*'2(/4>A#6/('(#@6-=#*'54+#%2*#3--.#6-3K#?+/8+#*'2(/4>A#(/2K(#
@6-=#4+'#(76@%3'
V-4,#=-9/.'#=%24.'#S#4+/2,#3--.,#96/44.'#./4+-(5+'6'#))W#96'%K(#/24-#5.%4'(
H%24.'#3-2&'34/-2#*6/&'(#5.%4'#=-4/-2!
X#=%/2#='3+%2/(=(#-@#'2'68>#46%2(@'6
Convection :one&of&several&different&ways&that&energy&can&be&transformed!
Conduction :can&work&in&metals,&however&it&is&a&slow&way&to&transfer&energy!
Radiation :solar&energy&!
<'34-2/3( )L<-#O7/.*L#
C%64+#+%(#YZ#=%[-6#./4+-(5+'6/3#5.%4'(#\\#)=%*'#-@#./4+-(5+'6'#
<+'6'#%6'#('&'6%.#*/@@'6'24#4'34-2/3#'2&/6-2='24(
Not&that&active
!
LH/**.'L#-@#4+'#5.%4'
E246%5.%4'#?L$/4+/2A!
]/&'68'24 ?5.%4'(#=-&/28#%5%64A
R-2&'68'24 ?5.%4'(#=-&/28#4-8'4+'6A
<6%2(@-6= ?5.%4'(#=-&/28#+-6/1-24%..>#5%(4A
".%4'#9-72*%6/'(!
P'-.-8/3%..># :7/'4#$/4+#(-='#'^3'54/-2(!
LV-4#(5-4(L#/';#V%$%//!
G3'%2/3#/';#H/*)N4.%24/3#6/*8'
!
R-24/2'24%.#/';#C%(4#N@6/3%2#6/@4#
!
J'$#367(4#/(#8'2'6%4'*
]/&'68'24#5.%4'#9-72*%6/'(!
G3'%2)-3'%2#(79*734/-2#1-2'#/';#_%5%2
!
G3'%2)3-24/2'24#(79*734/-2#1-2'#/';#N2*'(
!
With&oceanic&crusts&you&have&subduction&M
When&you&have&2&oceanic&crusts&you&dont&know&which&will&
subduct&(but&one&will&either&get&pushed&or&dragged&down.&
M
When&2&continents&collide&=&no&subduction&M
R-24/2'24)3-24/2'24#3-../(/-2#-2'#/';#V/=%.%>%(
!
Wilson&cycle&:one&of&the&very&guys&who&sorted&out&about&plate&
tectonics&
M
R67(4#/(#3-2(7='*#-6#3-=56'(('*
R-2&'68'24#5.%4'#9-72*%6/'(!
Much&shallower&like&the&one&that&happened&in&Haiti
!
Not&making&or&consuming&crust,&just&sliding&past&each&other&&
!
R67(4#/(#2'/4+'6#36'%4'*#2-4#*'(46->'*#/';#0%2#N2*6'%(#I%7.4
<6%2(@-6=#5.%4'#9-72*%6/'(!
Chapter(2(*Part(2(
B'*2'(*%>,# 0'54'=9'6# `X,#`aYZ
YaFXZ#"H

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Rocks&break&and&release&sudden&energy&which&travels&through&the&earth&in&wave&
form (seismic&waves) :they&behave&kind&of&like&sound&waves.&
!
Are&compressional&waves&:kind&of&like&a&traffic&jam,&as&one&car&
moves&forward&and&the&space&contracts&between&u&and&the&other&
car.&
!
Thats&what's&happening&in&the&wave&(compressing&and&expanding)&
!
First&Type&:P&Wave&(Primary&Wave) :fastest,&arrive&to&the&other&side&of&the&
earth&faster&than&the&other&type
The&material&is&being&sheared/deformed.&(ie.&Think&of&slinky)
!
Second&type&:S&Wave&(Secondary&Wave) :travel&slower
Both&waves&behave&differently&when&they&travel&through&different&layers&in&
the&earth.&
Surface&waves&are&the&slowest&bc&they&travel&on&the&outside&not&taking&a&
short&cut&through&the&body&of&the&planet.&
Earth&quake&waves&(seismic&waves)&:there&are&types.&We're&intrusted&in&seismic&
waves&that&are&body&waves&that&travel&right&through&the&interior&of&the&planets.
!
Bending&wave&in&its&path&:refraction
!
When&it&hits&the&boundary&it&starts&slowing&down&(ie.&Making&a&pencil&look&bent&
in&water&:light&waves&are&refracted)
!
We&can&tell&where&the&boundaries&are&inside&the&planet&and&about&the&different&
materials
!
"#$%&'(#)*%(+'*,#()$%&'(#(-./*
!
0#$%&'#(+%*-$#1-2'
0)$%&'( )3%22-4#5%((#4+6-78+#-74'6#3-6'#93#/4(#./:7/*;#<-#5%((#4+6-78+#=%4'6/%.#
4+'>#2''*#4-#+%&'#(+'%6;#?-2'#-@#4+'#$%>(#4+'>#@/876'*#-74#4+'#-74'6#3-6'#/(#
./:7/*A;
!
"#)B%&'( )
!
C%64+D(#.%>'6(#@6-=#4+'#/2(/*'#-74
E22'6#3-6'F#(-./*
!
G74'6#3-6'F#./:7/*
!
Mostly&iron,&nickel,&metal&(theoretical)&
!
H%*'#-@#I')J/#='4%.
<+'#3-6'!
J-4#%(#*'2('#%(#4+'#3-6'
!
H%*'#-@#6'.%4/&'.>#*'2('#6-3K
L$'%K#1-2'L#(5+'6'#?(:7/(+>A
!
Pressure&increases&as&we&go&inside&the&earthM
Lots&of&magna&originates&here&M
J'%6#='.4/28#5-/24
!
N(4+'2-(5+'6'
<+'#=%24.'!
O%(%.4
!
<+/2,#*'2('
!
G3'%2/3#367(4
P6%2/4'
!
Q'((#*'2(',#4+/2K
!
R-24/2'24%.#367(4
Geosphere&instead&of&lithosphere
!
R67(4#S#4-5#-@#=%24.'#T#./4+-(5+'6'
<+'#367(4!
B+>#*-#3-24/2'24(#=-&'#%6-72*U
V-4#6-3K#?.-$#*'2(/4>A#6/('(#@6-=#*'54+#%2*#3--.#6-3K#?+/8+#*'2(/4>A#(/2K(#
@6-=#4+'#(76@%3'
V-4,#=-9/.'#=%24.'#S#4+/2,#3--.,#96/44.'#./4+-(5+'6'#))W#96'%K(#/24-#5.%4'(
H%24.'#3-2&'34/-2#*6/&'(#5.%4'#=-4/-2!
X#=%/2#='3+%2/(=(#-@#'2'68>#46%2(@'6
Convection :one&of&several&different&ways&that&energy&can&be&transformed!
Conduction :can&work&in&metals,&however&it&is&a&slow&way&to&transfer&energy!
Radiation :solar&energy&!
<'34-2/3( )L<-#O7/.*L#
C%64+#+%(#YZ#=%[-6#./4+-(5+'6/3#5.%4'(#\\#)=%*'#-@#./4+-(5+'6'#
<+'6'#%6'#('&'6%.#*/@@'6'24#4'34-2/3#'2&/6-2='24(
Not&that&active
!
LH/**.'L#-@#4+'#5.%4'
E246%5.%4'#?L$/4+/2A!
]/&'68'24 ?5.%4'(#=-&/28#%5%64A
R-2&'68'24 ?5.%4'(#=-&/28#4-8'4+'6A
<6%2(@-6= ?5.%4'(#=-&/28#+-6/1-24%..>#5%(4A
".%4'#9-72*%6/'(!
P'-.-8/3%..># :7/'4#$/4+#(-='#'^3'54/-2(!
LV-4#(5-4(L#/';#V%$%//!
G3'%2/3#/';#H/*)N4.%24/3#6/*8'
!
R-24/2'24%.#/';#C%(4#N@6/3%2#6/@4#
!
J'$#367(4#/(#8'2'6%4'*
]/&'68'24#5.%4'#9-72*%6/'(!
G3'%2)-3'%2#(79*734/-2#1-2'#/';#_%5%2
!
G3'%2)3-24/2'24#(79*734/-2#1-2'#/';#N2*'(
!
With&oceanic&crusts&you&have&subduction&M
When&you&have&2&oceanic&crusts&you&dont&know&which&will&
subduct&(but&one&will&either&get&pushed&or&dragged&down.&
M
When&2&continents&collide&=&no&subduction&M
R-24/2'24)3-24/2'24#3-../(/-2#-2'#/';#V/=%.%>%(
!
Wilson&cycle&:one&of&the&very&guys&who&sorted&out&about&plate&
tectonics&
M
R67(4#/(#3-2(7='*#-6#3-=56'(('*
R-2&'68'24#5.%4'#9-72*%6/'(!
Much&shallower&like&the&one&that&happened&in&Haiti
!
Not&making&or&consuming&crust,&just&sliding&past&each&other&&
!
R67(4#/(#2'/4+'6#36'%4'*#2-4#*'(46->'*#/';#0%2#N2*6'%(#I%7.4
<6%2(@-6=#5.%4'#9-72*%6/'(!
Chapter(2(*Part(2(
B'*2'(*%>,# 0'54'=9'6# `X,#`aYZ YaFXZ#"H
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version