Class Notes (1,000,000)
CA (620,000)
UTM (20,000)
Environment (1,000)
ENV100Y5 (900)
Lecture 28

ENV100Y5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Food Security, Calorie, Micronutrient


Department
Environment
Course Code
ENV100Y5
Professor
Barbara Murck
Lecture
28

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Too#little#and#too#much#food#are#both#problematic#from#a#global#perspective
Malnutrition =#unbalanced#diet#(shortage#of#required#nutrients#OR#excess)#mal$%
bad$
Undernourishment=#too#few#calories#on#a#chronic#basis#
In#CA,#48%#of#adults#exceed#their#healthy#weight#and#14%#are#obese#
Overnourishment =#too#many#calories# on#an#ongoing#basis
Calorie#gap#between#rich#and#poor#Jobesity$=$poor$+$overweight,$the$wealthier$=$
normal$weight$in$a$developed$population
Diseases#of#malnutrition
Classic$starvation,$skeleton$like$
Big$tummy$%poor$quality$calories$(not$the$micronutrients$they$need)$
Kwashiorkor: protein#&#micronutrient#deficiency
Excess#fats,#carbohydrates,#calories#
Diabetes#(excess$body$weight), heart#disease,#obesity
Undernurishment$=$associated$with$poverty$
Who#is#most#at#risk#of#hunger?
Often#have#no#electricity# and#no#safe#drinking#water
Health,#education#and#sanitation#services#are#poor#
Often#directly#involved#in#producing#food#(but$globalization$has$led$to$a$
lot$of$land$for$others.$It$isn't$a$pastoral$system$anymore)
Many#have#no#land#of#their#own#and#work#seasonally#
Rural#poor#in#developing#countries
No#means#to#produce#food;#have#few#resources#to#buy#it#(isolated$in$
societies$where$you$just$can't$grow$food)$
Urban#poor
Floods,#droughts,#earthquakes,#etc.#force#people#to#abandon#land#(long%
lasting$effects)$
Victims#of#catastrophes
Why#cant#we#feed#everyone?
Farmers#today#produce#more#than#enough#calories#to#feed#everyone
Is#food#being#produced#sustainably?#Will$ be$discussed
Is#there#more#involved#in#food#security#than#just#increasing#agricultural#
productivity?#Will$be$discussed
Food#security#means…
Ensuring#that#all#people#have#physical#and#economic#access#to#the#quantity#and#
quality#of#food#they#need#to#work#and#function#normally#from#local,#nonJ
emergency#sources#(not$just$quantity,$it's$quality$=$needs$to$be$clean,$and$no$
pollutants)$
We#are#producing#more#food#and#more#food#per#person#(1960#onward)#J
However,#perJcapita#food#production#is#starting#to#decline# Jreflected#in#prices
Global#grain#stockpile: used#to#be#enough#to#feed#the#world#for#several#months;#
now#it’s#a#few#days#(worrying$trend$%this$is$the$food$in$our$house)
Food#security#depends#on#both#production#and#distribution
Agricultural#input#costs#are#increasing#($$#+#environment)#
Effectiveness#of#inputs#is#decreasing#J
Environmental#costs#of#outputs#such#as#pollution#are#increasing#
Production$doing$ok$but$hasn't$solved$food$security$
!
Soils#are#in#decline
ProductionJrelated#issues:#
Can’t#get#crops#off#the#farm#and#to#the#people
Distribution$%significant$problem.$Ex.$Disasters$%providing$aid$
!
Food#produced#but#lost#in#storage#Jinefficiency$and$transport$
DistributionJrelated#issues:
Food#security#is#constrained#by#the#5#“A’s”
Availability (production)#
Adequacy (quality)#
Accessibility (storage;#distribution#infrastructure;#civil#unrest;#social#status)#J
how$can$we$actually$get$at$the$food
Affordability (ability#to#import,#buy,#produce,#subsidize)#
Acceptability (cultural,#religious)
The$Green$Revolution
Agriculture#postJWW2
Cheap#energy!#Jgood$infrastructure$
Mechanization#(tractors,#combines;#can#work#larger#fields)#
LargeJscale#irrigation#(can#farm#marginal#land)#Jincrease$production$
Inorganic#fertilizers#(byJproducts#of#oil#industry)#
Knowledge#of#plant#breeding#(can#breed#highJyield,#disease#resistant#crops)
The#Green#Revolution#
Better#farming#methods#to#alleviate# world#hunger#Jdesigned$to$address$big$
issues
Started#in#Mexico#in#1940’s#(Dr.#Norman#Borlau)#Nobel#Peace#Prize#1970
Increased#wheat#yields#via#selective#breeding#
Spread#to#India#&#Pakistan;#rest#of#world#
Pakistan#produced#8.4#million#tons#in#1970;#(4.6#million#in#1965)#Jdouble$
what$it$was$5$years$before
Indias#produced#20#million#tons#in#1970;#(12.3#million#1965)
With$more$tech,$better$understanding,$etc.$we$can$start$feeding$people.$
The#promise#of#the#Green#Revolution#was#to
Increase#yields#and#carrying#capacity#(increase$resources)$
Improve#technological#knowledge
Get#modern#techniques#to#rural#farmers#
Eliminate#hunger#
Extensification: more#land#brought#into#production#(pesticides,#irrigation,#
fertilizers,#new#strains)#Jlook$at$land$suitable$for$agriculture,$develop$a$
technology$to$make$that$land$to$actually$grow$crops$
Intensification: greater#yields#per#unit#land#(pesticides,#irrigation,#
fertilizers,#new#strains)#Jfocusing$on$existing$land$and$getting$more$out$of$
it$
Goals#were#approached#through#both#intensification#and#extensification#of#
agricultural#production
GR:#enormous#increases#in#production
1960#J2000:#food#production#increased#>1000%
Calories#per#capita#increased#
Famine#decreased
Lifestyle#and#income#improved#for#many#
Farming#was#modernized#Jripple$effect$
1950#=#14#million#tons;#1990#=#144#million#tons#(grain)
However,#growth#rate#of#food#production#is#slowing#(e.g.#wheat)
GR#solved#many#problems#but#caused#others
Pesticides,#irrigation,#fertilizers,#new#strains (wheat,corn,etc) are#a#mixed#
blessing!#
Salinization,#desertification,#pollution,#loss#of#arable#land….
(2008):#China:#400,000#km2#of#cropland#&#prairie#is#now#desert#(½#of#farmland#
in#Canada)#
Overgrazing;#overJexploitation#of#arable#land;#overpumping#rivers#and#aquifers#
Lost#topsoil#pollutes#both#China’s#cities# and#countries#around#the#world
Chapter(8(*Agriculture(and(Biotechnology
Tuesday,# November# 17,#2015
7:05#PM

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Too#little#and#too#much#food#are#both#problematic#from#a#global#perspective
Malnutrition =#unbalanced#diet#(shortage#of#required#nutrients#OR#excess)#mal$%
bad$
Undernourishment=#too#few#calories#on#a#chronic#basis#
In#CA,#48%#of#adults#exceed#their#healthy#weight#and#14%#are#obese#
Overnourishment =#too#many#calories# on#an#ongoing#basis
Calorie#gap#between#rich#and#poor#Jobesity$=$poor$+$overweight,$the$wealthier$=$
normal$weight$in$a$developed$population
Diseases#of#malnutrition
Classic$starvation,$skeleton$like$
Marasmus: severe#deficit#of#energy,#protein#&#carbohydrates#
Big$tummy$%poor$quality$calories$(not$the$micronutrients$they$need)$
Kwashiorkor: protein#&#micronutrient#deficiency
Excess#fats,#carbohydrates,#calories#
Diabetes#(excess$body$weight), heart#disease,#obesity
Undernurishment$=$associated$with$poverty$
Who#is#most#at#risk#of#hunger?
Often#have#no#electricity# and#no#safe#drinking#water
Health,#education#and#sanitation#services#are#poor#
Often#directly#involved#in#producing#food#(but$globalization$has$led$to$a$
lot$of$land$for$others.$It$isn't$a$pastoral$system$anymore)
Many#have#no#land#of#their#own#and#work#seasonally#
Rural#poor#in#developing#countries
No#means#to#produce#food;#have#few#resources#to#buy#it#(isolated$in$
societies$where$you$just$can't$grow$food)$
Urban#poor
Floods,#droughts,#earthquakes,#etc.#force#people#to#abandon#land#(long%
lasting$effects)$
Victims#of#catastrophes
Why#cant#we#feed#everyone?
Farmers#today#produce#more#than#enough#calories#to#feed#everyone
Is#food#being#produced#sustainably?#Will$ be$discussed
Is#there#more#involved#in#food#security#than#just#increasing#agricultural#
productivity?#Will$be$discussed
Food#security#means…
Ensuring#that#all#people#have#physical#and#economic#access#to#the#quantity#and#
quality#of#food#they#need#to#work#and#function#normally#from#local,#nonJ
emergency#sources#(not$just$quantity,$it's$quality$=$needs$to$be$clean,$and$no$
pollutants)$
We#are#producing#more#food#and#more#food#per#person#(1960#onward)#J
However,#perJcapita#food#production#is#starting#to#decline# Jreflected#in#prices
Global#grain#stockpile: used#to#be#enough#to#feed#the#world#for#several#months;#
now#it’s#a#few#days#(worrying$trend$%this$is$the$food$in$our$house)
Food#security#depends#on#both#production#and#distribution
Agricultural#input#costs#are#increasing#($$#+#environment)#
Effectiveness#of#inputs#is#decreasing#J
Environmental#costs#of#outputs#such#as#pollution#are#increasing#
Production$doing$ok$but$hasn't$solved$food$security$
!
Soils#are#in#decline
ProductionJrelated#issues:#
Can’t#get#crops#off#the#farm#and#to#the#people
Distribution$%significant$problem.$Ex.$Disasters$%providing$aid$
!
Food#produced#but#lost#in#storage#Jinefficiency$and$transport$
DistributionJrelated#issues:
Food#security#is#constrained#by#the#5#“A’s”
Availability (production)#
Adequacy (quality)#
Accessibility (storage;#distribution#infrastructure;#civil#unrest;#social#status)#J
how$can$we$actually$get$at$the$food
Affordability (ability#to#import,#buy,#produce,#subsidize)#
Acceptability (cultural,#religious)
The$Green$Revolution
Agriculture#postJWW2
Cheap#energy!#Jgood$infrastructure$
Mechanization#(tractors,#combines;#can#work#larger#fields)#
LargeJscale#irrigation#(can#farm#marginal#land)#Jincrease$production$
Inorganic#fertilizers#(byJproducts#of#oil#industry)#
Knowledge#of#plant#breeding#(can#breed#highJyield,#disease#resistant#crops)
The#Green#Revolution#
Better#farming#methods#to#alleviate# world#hunger#Jdesigned$to$address$big$
issues
Started#in#Mexico#in#1940’s#(Dr.#Norman#Borlau)#Nobel#Peace#Prize#1970
Increased#wheat#yields#via#selective#breeding#
Spread#to#India#&#Pakistan;#rest#of#world#
Pakistan#produced#8.4#million#tons#in#1970;#(4.6#million#in#1965)#Jdouble$
what$it$was$5$years$before
Indias#produced#20#million#tons#in#1970;#(12.3#million#1965)
With$more$tech,$better$understanding,$etc.$we$can$start$feeding$people.$
The#promise#of#the#Green#Revolution#was#to
Increase#yields#and#carrying#capacity#(increase$resources)$
Improve#technological#knowledge
Get#modern#techniques#to#rural#farmers#
Eliminate#hunger#
Extensification: more#land#brought#into#production#(pesticides,#irrigation,#
fertilizers,#new#strains)#Jlook$at$land$suitable$for$agriculture,$develop$a$
technology$to$make$that$land$to$actually$grow$crops$
Intensification: greater#yields#per#unit#land#(pesticides,#irrigation,#
fertilizers,#new#strains)#Jfocusing$on$existing$land$and$getting$more$out$of$
it$
Goals#were#approached#through#both#intensification#and#extensification#of#
agricultural#production
GR:#enormous#increases#in#production
1960#J2000:#food#production#increased#>1000%
Calories#per#capita#increased#
Famine#decreased
Lifestyle#and#income#improved#for#many#
Farming#was#modernized#Jripple$effect$
1950#=#14#million#tons;#1990#=#144#million#tons#(grain)
However,#growth#rate#of#food#production#is#slowing#(e.g.#wheat)
GR#solved#many#problems#but#caused#others
Pesticides,#irrigation,#fertilizers,#new#strains (wheat,corn,etc) are#a#mixed#
blessing!#
Salinization,#desertification,#pollution,#loss#of#arable#land….
(2008):#China:#400,000#km2#of#cropland#&#prairie#is#now#desert#(½#of#farmland#
in#Canada)#
Overgrazing;#overJexploitation#of#arable#land;#overpumping#rivers#and#aquifers#
Lost#topsoil#pollutes#both#China’s#cities# and#countries#around#the#world
Chapter(8(*Agriculture(and(Biotechnology
Tuesday,# November# 17,#2015 7:05#PM
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