ENV100Y5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 35: Water Cycle, Mass Balance, Aquifer

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13 Feb 2016
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Lecture 35 – Freshwater
Water makes us unique
-Makes life possible
-Possible in 3 states
-Has a high heat potential
-Moves nutrients around the globe
-Largest water reservoir on the planet is the mantle (locked up in minerals however)
-Tectonic movements makes mantle elastic
-Hydrology is how water works on and under the ground
-A lot of freshwater is being freed up and some are evaporating, so there’s lots of changes to the
hydrological cycle
-Percolation is where there’s water moving in soil particles
-Mass balance is the idea that there’s a net some game
-Energy that drives the hydrological cycles; a) solar energy and b) gravity
Water II
-A drainage basin is a local hydrological unit; collects water in a common area
-All the water that comes to a catchment comes from precipitation
-To see how much water has been stored in a catchment, people usually check how much comes
in, how much evaporation/transpiration occurs, etc
-Most storage of water is underground (groundwater) in aquifers
-Unconfined aquifers usually have an unpeermeable layer on the bottom, but the top is
permeable
-If the aquifer is depleted, the aquifer/water table is going to dry up
-The unsaturated zone has some air and water
-In aquiclude, water is being prevented from going down
-The saturated zones are completely filled with water
-Zone of saturation is also known as the zone of aeration
-The water table in the summer is much lower, as there’s a lot of evaporation and transpiration
-Water is unequally distributed; many areas with high populations face water shortages
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