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University of Toronto Mississauga
Monika Havelka

Environment - Helvalka 10/3/2013 11:07:00 AM -The environment is a legal entity -Environmental policies/practices need to be defined by various organizations -Socially/culturally/philosophically -Bill C-38 (The Fisheries Act) has been gutted -The environment was considered a non-living entity -Policy has to be grounded in good science -Environmental science explains interactions between humans between the psychical and biological world Science- a systematic process for learning about the world and testing our understanding of it. The accumulated body of knowledge that arises from the dynamic process. The Scientific Method – Testing ideas through observations, questioning and experimentation -Assumptions: The universe works according to natural laws - Events arise of cause (Cause & Effect) - Observation leads to hypothesis - The scientific process includes peer review, publication, debate etc.… - Uncertainty is a fundamental part of the process th Sept/13 - Communication about environmental issues is further complicated by differences in language and worldview -DDT concentration increases 10 million times -Good for farming and food control but it destroys eco-systems (Extreme pro‟s & con‟s) -Legislature banned DDT -Malaria (South Africa) case (pro DDT) -Perception is influenced by worldview -Policy/Legal Government vs. Scientific -Academic vs. Applied -Profane/Secular vs. Religious/Sacred -Affluence vs. Poverty -Industrialized vs. Developing Nations -Anthropocentric vs. Eco centric -Ecosphere vs. Techno sphere -Economy vs. Ecology Techno-sphere – Manufacturing, Agriculture, Transportation, Production of energy Eco-sphere- Issues and Topics, Basic science, Human impact, Challenges as a Global Community “Concern is allowed; depression is not allowed” -Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Report card on Env) State of ecosystems to support life (Credible) - Rapid, extensive changes in the past 50 years -Substantial and irreversible loss in biodiversity -Net gains in human development and economic well-being, but at a cost -Degradation likely to worsen -Reversing the degradation of ecosystems will require significant changes - Population, poverty and over-consumption are root problems -Human pop growth exacerbates environmental problems Sustainability – Meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs “Maintaining your consumption without eroding your capital” “Enough – for all – forever” Triple bottom line – Three Legged Stool Economic Leg Environmental Leg Social Leg -Good jobs -Pollution & Waste - Working Conditions - Fare wages - Renewable Energy - Health Services -Security - Conservation - Educational Services -Infrastructure - Restoration - Community and Culture -Fair Trade - Social Justice th Sept/16 -4.7 billion years Solar System -Model = is a representation The nebular theory explains the origin of the solar system -Interstellar cloud inherits elements from previous generations of stars -Rotation -Solar nebula is formed -Clouds of gas and dust - Rotational, gravitational collapse - Solar nebula -Condensation -Acieration -Differentiation Earth was a hostile place - Constant volcanic activity - Meteorite impact bombardment -Intense ultraviolet radiation from the sun -No “free” oxygen in the atmosphere -No liquid water -Radioactive decay in the Earths core The Early Atmosphere - Primitive vs. Secondary atmosphere -Role of volcanic degassing -Reducing (oxygen-poor) -Rich in Co2, Co1, So2, CH4, NH3, NO, H2o -Hot -Not hospitable for life as we know it The water molecule has chemical characteristics that support life - Liquid over a wide range of temperatures - Strong cohesion -Water molecules are polar “universal solvents”- Facilitates bonding w/ other chemical - Facilitates the transport of chemicals -Water-based process occur in a variety of conditions -High heat capacity -Stabilizes systems against change -Solid less dense than liquid floating ice insulates water -Transport to light -Photosynthesis is possible Atmosphere/ Hydrosphere/ Geosphere / Interacted / Dynamically - Surface cooled enough to sustain liquid water - Still Hot- water precipitated and re-evaporated Sept/18 th - Light is the process that happened inside a cell - Heterotrophic Hypothesis – Primordial Soup - Panspermia Hypothesis – Seeds from Space - Chemoutoph – Ocean Depths Primordial Soup (1953) Tested the hypothesis that conditions on the early earth were conductive to producing the “building blocks” of life. -Tried to recreate “early earth” conditions -Made al 20 amino acids, sugars, lipids Panspermia -potatoes fossils inside mars meteorite Hydrothermal Vents - Water emerges at up to 464 Celsius - Interface of hot and cold water suitable for information of organic compounds  Life originated from inorganic chemicals in the ocean  First life forms Fossils – remnant of along dead organism, pressured in stone Fossil Record – glues information about the history of past life -Not all fossils are “macrofossil” - Chemical evidence shows that life was here -Single celled bacteria appeared 4 billion years ago -Several mass extension have occurred Life had two main influences on the chemistry of the atmosphere - Build- up oxygen - Removal of Carbon dioxide Cyanobacteria use up Co2 and emit O2, Aerobic (oxygen tolerant) life forms Great Oxygen Event (G.O.E) - Biologically induced appearance of free oxygen (O2) in earths atmosphere - Seafloor sediments recorded - Sink – things accumulate G.O.E was primarily biological and geological - Ozone (o3) layer: function as UV sunscreen - Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation - 6 million year ago - Starting – 725 mya: super continent Rodinia -Starts to break up into smaller land masses -Increases favorable habitats (Continental shifts) Sept/20 th - Carbon dioxide is removed - Converted into Limestone -Long term storage (sequestration) of carbon dioxide in sediments and sedimentary rocks - Chemical composition of the atmosphere - Existence of water -Ecosphere and Biosphere - Dynamic nature of rock weathering -Dynamic nature of Lisothphere Earth has several characteristics that make it unique among known planets and uniquely capable of supporting life Chapter 2 – Tectonics & Hazards Rock Cycle – Heating, melting, cooling, breaking, reassembling of rocks and minerals -Dominated by surface process but driven both internally and externally Tectonic Cycle – Process related to the movement of large fragments Geological Cycles –Determine soil chemistry & replenish nutrients - Drive formation of mineral resources - Influence development of landscape and maintain ranges - Changes in atmospheric chemistry -Determine location, size and shape of ocean basins - Control oceanic and atmospheric circulation and the distribution of climate zones Igneous Rock – Magma = molten (liquid) rock + gases +crystals - Lava = magma that reaches the surface - Igneous rock = forms with magma Intrusive (Platonic rock) – magma cools and crystalizes slowly, well below earths surface (granite) Extrusive (volcanic) rock – magma ejected from a volcano, cools and solidifies quickly (e.x. basalt) Sedimentary rock – particles of rock, transported over time - Forms in the rear surface or surface environment Metamorphic rock – modified as a result of exposure to great heat and/or pressure (high enough to reshape crystals) - Earth is not homogenous - Internal layering is defined by - Different physical properties - Different in composition Direct studying of rocks -Surface Rocks -Dill holes -Lava -Xeno = foreign rocks - Astronomical & orbital measurements - Planetary mass and density Refraction of seismic (earth quakes) waves Fault – Where the rock is fracturing Focus – Where the entail point of Neptune Refraction – light different speed than water/ something through 2 medians rd Sept/23 Asthenosphere – weak zone - Near melting zone Mantel convection drives plate motion – Hot rock (low density) - Cool rock (high density) sinks from the surface - Breaks into plates Earth has 15 major lithosphere plates Interpolate – “ Middle of the plate” (Inside) Divergent – plates moving apart Convergent – plates moving together Transform – plates moving horizontally past Hot spots e.g. Hawaii, Galapagos Oceanic (Mid Atlantic ridge) Continental (East African rift) Convergent Plate Boundaries – crust is consumed or compressed - Ocean – ocean subduction zone (Japan) - Ocean – continent subduction zone (Andes) - Continental – continent collision zone (Himalayas) Always ocean under continental Plate tectonics and the rocky cycle provide the physical foundation for environmental process Sept/25 th - Decreasing beluga population - Is vulnerable for the great lakes -Bio magnification of contaminants Major Earth Spheres:  Geosphere  Atmosphere  Hydrosphere  Polo sphere Boundaries overlap systems and subsystems Isolated systems neither energy nor matter can be exchanged across the boundaries Closed systems: both matter and energy can be exchanged across the boundaries Dynamic equilibrium – systems are constantly changing, interacting, balancing Resilience – some systems (not all) recover easily from disturbances Emergent properties – system characteristics not evident in components on their own A cycle is a system of two or more connected reservoirs in which material (or energy) is transferred in a cyclical function Matter is endlessly recycled through environmental systems, changes form as it goes - Energy comes into the earth system, cycles around Reservoirs or “pools” can be defined by: Physical boundaries like “Holding Tank” – The Ocean in the stratosphere Sept/ 30 th Flux – amount of material transferred, described in terms of mass or volume per cent of time - Are flows of matter into and out of reservoirs - Are controlled by rates of transfer processes and capacities of reservoirs Source = where the flux is coming from (gives out more than it takes) Sink = where the flux is going (takes more than it gives out) Steady State Source = Sinks Time required for burden to run out = Turnover time Time to fill would be a steady state, Turnover time = Residence time Average time spent by a molecule of the material of interest in the reservoir – Residence time Positive Feedback – Self – reinforcing, self – perpetuating “vicious” cycle Negative Feedback –Self – regulating, homeostatic th Oct/7 Ecology – study of interactions among organisms and their psychical movement as an integrated system Ecosystem – a way of looking at organisms and their interactions with the environment as an integrated system -Focuses on functions, processes, fluxes (energy, nutrient) - Are nested and hierarchal - Are dynamical -Inputs, outputs, feedback loops, resistance and resilience, emergent properties -Boundary between biotic and abiotic components is often blurred Closed system: matter doesn‟t arrive or leave Open system: matter arrives and leaves Resistance – system resists change and remains stable despite a disturbance Resilience- system changed in response to a disturbance, but later returns to its original state Ecosystem services: - Improve water quality - Recharge groundwater supply - Pollination -CO2 fixation -Nutrient retention and cycling -Erosion control -Pest control -Renewable resources -Medicine -Recreation 4 main components: - Abiotic environment (water, soil minerals, atmospheric gases) - Producers -Consumers -Decomposers Nov/18 th - provides food, shelter, fuel -purifies air and water, detoxifies waste - Generates and renews soil fertility - Pollinates plants, controls pests and disease - Maintains genetic resources Organisms provide drugs and medicine Deep Ecology – nature has right Biodiversity increases the stability and resilience of communities and ecosystems Decreased biodiversity reduces natural systems ability to function and provide services Abundance = number of individuals Richness= number of different species Evenness= distribution of abundance over species SLOSS debate: Single Large or Several Small Biological dynamics of forest fragments project, Manaus Brazil  Minimum Critical Size of Ecosystems Project  “nestedness” of species is a critical concept Spatial factors: area size, proximity ,fragmentation and isolation Climatic factors: productivity and predictability Historical factors: evolutionary time Habitat heterogeneity : larger geographic areas will have a greater variety of habitat types & more riches Population “buffers” : large areas have large populations, which are less likely to die out through stochastic (random) process Number of species of species in an area = equilibrium between the number arriving and the number dying out nd Nov/22 H = habitat loss and fragmentation - loss of species diversity - soil erosion - situation of streams - climate change - fragmentation disrupts ecosystems I = invasive species - global trade movements of foreign species into new environments - disruption and destruction of ecosystems - agriculture: losses of $55-$250 billion annually P= Pollution - 26 fold increase in amount of agricultural pesticides use in last 50 years - chemicals used 1,00‟s of km away enter Arctic food chains P= population (human) O = over harvesting Feral Cats – implicated in global decline of songbirds, ground nesting birds, turtles, bats - especially problematic in Australia , Galapagos Islands Nov/25 th -to transport water, water must be lost - capillary action = moves H2O, 2-3 min - rest = evaporation - stabilize soil and prevents erosion -slow runoff and lessen flooding -store carbon, release oxygen, moderate climate Philosophy – J.Brunning 10/3/2013 11:07:00 AM Mark Schranz – Teachers Assistant [email protected] th Oct 7 - “Provided that” means “if” -“ Given that” means “if” - “In case” means “if” - Whatever follows the “Only if” is always a necessary condition, puts it in the consequence - If circle, then square = standard form -If not square, than not circle Unless = (IF IT IS NOT THE CASE) Replace the “unless” with an “if” and negate what follows it th Oct/9 Review for 2 ndTest - Argument -Valid Argument -Consistent sentences + sets - Equivalent sentences Oct/21 st - 2 paragraph explication due Friday - don‟t quote - put it into own words - based on article on blackboard Epistemology The theory of k knowledge from the Greek episteme – to know We will investigate the following type of questions : 1. what is knowledge ? what is the difference between knowledge and belief? 2. Can we know anything at all? Or are we doomed to ignorance about the most important subjects in life 3. How do we acquire knowledge? Through the use of our senses, or intellect or both? 4. What can we be certain of? What is it to say that some statement is true ? Knowledge of Acquaintance – A person knows something by acquaintance Competence Knowledge – when they have acquired a certain skill Propositional Knowledge – statements of truth , where someone knows that he… Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for knowledge Truth is public and objective Numbers do not make anything true 1. S Knows that P 2. S believes that P 3. P is True 4. S is justified in accepting P Oct/23 rd Theories of Truth 1. Correspondence theory : A belief is true if it asserts a proposition (P) that corresponds to the facts Problems: A) What are facts? B) How can a proposition correspond to facts (states of affairs in the world) 2. Coherence theory : A proposition is true if it coheres with a system of other propositions. A true proposition is true by virtue of its legitimate membership in a system whose individual parts are related to each other by logical necessity 3.Pragmatic theory : A proposition is true if in the long run it will be believed by the community. A proposition is true depending on what results from believing the proposition. Truth depends on the practical consequences that follow from a belief in the LONG RUN. Problems: A)When can we take a proposition as true? B) Truth becomes a function of the consequences that follow from a belief ***READ articles on blackboard – Descartes *** Meditation Ch.1 th TUT – Oct/ 25 - Simplicity , No Bullshit, Structure - Fancy Language / Thesaurus use - Selling : since the time of Socrates …. - Never use long quotations , unless completely necessary Nov/4th Essay 1 - 1200 -1500 words - format – make sure that you include a title page , containing name, student number, title of essay , name of course, name of prof, name of T.A and the date - spelling, punctuation, diction, sentence structure - no footnotes - no fancy intro - 4 pgs - minimal quotes , if not none - clarity, short sentences ***READ , 161-163 Doubt & Skepticism *** 163-168 3 Articles Dream Argument It is impossible to distinguish between dream experiences and awaken experiences Therefore, it is possible that I am dreaming right now Rejection of Dream Argument 1. it does not show that all my former beliefs are not certain 2. Left with mathematics 2x2 =4 3. Left with singles and universals Simple and universal are the properties You can doubt all disciplines Deceptive God Argument 1. Either I was created by an all powerful God or I was created by something less powerful than God. 2. If I was created by God, then I was created by something powerful to make me be wrong about what seems most certain 3. If I was created by something less powerful that God, then I am more likely to be wrong about what I believe . Nov/6 th Meditation 2 Descartes reviews his epistemic situation  All of his former beliefs are less than certain  Universal Doubt achieved by the following Either I was created by an all an all powerful God who has the power to deceive me even about beliefs that I hold to be most certain or I was created by something less powerful than God and hence I am more likely to be deceived (wrong) about my beliefs  Therefore, must suspend my judgment on all my former beliefs  Has Descartes‟s project failed?  Perhaps , I am the author of my thoughts, then at least I am something  I have no body , no senses, Can I exists without these ?  I have convinced myself, that there is no earth, sky, no mind, no body  Does it follow that I don‟t exist?  No !!! IF I CONVINCE MYSELF OF SOMETHING, THEN I MUST EXIST The Cogitio: I am , I exist, is necessarily true each time I pronounce it, or that I mentally conceive it I THINK, THEREFORE I AM I AM, I EXIST **206 right hand column Nov/11th ** 239 principles of human knowledge - first 15 section *242 1. Direct or Naïve Realism The immediate object of our perception is a physical object that ia independent on us -Science challenges the view John Locke (1632-1704)  Locke‟s Representation  Locke argued that all our knowledge is derived ultimately from sense experience  We are not directly aware of the object itself, but only of the ideal, which the object causes in our mind  We are directly aware of the idea or perception Nov/13 th Primary & Secondary Qualities Question: Do the idea‟s (sense data/sense impressions) in the mind accurately represent the material object (physical world)? Locke‟s Answer: Yes and No ! Material objects have two types of qualities The sensible properties that can be protected by our senses , quality of objects are those features such as color and sound, taste and smell, size and temperature. th In the 17 Century, a theory about the status of these qualities came to be widely accepted by both scientists and philosophers. Locke‟s theory of primary and secondary qualities is an example of the theory, and his explanation of his response to the question: Do the sense impressions in our mind accurately represent the material object? physical world? Primary Qualities – are a foundational feature , most basic, it doesn‟t diminish by division, inseparable from a material object The ideas which resemble their causes are the ideas of primary qualities: texture, number, size, shape, motion. The ideas which do not resemble their causes are the ideas of secondary qualities: color, sound, taste, and odor. ***231 page those that are utterly inseparable from the body in what ever state it be , through all changes it will have primary qualities. Secondary Qualities - Color/sound/taste/temperature -Locke says three things about secondary qualities a) they are powers that objects have to doc certain sorts of things…only powers…capacities or dispositions or dispositional properties. Appearance vs. Reality We have as much certainty as is required to function in the real world, in reality you cant know very much PG 192*** Nov/18 th Chapter 1: Appearance and Reality Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable person can doubt it ? Difficult question ! A) Any statement about our immediate experience of an object is likely to be wrong B) Argument from Illusion ( app vs. reality) *** 192-193 Example of the Table Russell Claims: A) Real Table is not what we immediately experience B) Real Table is not immediately known to us C) Real Table is an inference from what is immediately known Inductive Deductive Important Questions: 1. is there a real table at all? 2.If so, what can the object be? 3.What is the relation of sense-data from physical objects? Sense data: Things that are immediately, known to me Most philosophers agree that physical objects exist. They are independent of our perception (sense data) of them. Sense data are a signs of the existence of independent objects. Chapter 2. The Existence of Matter 1.We are certain of our sense data, but is there any reason to regard them as signs of some physical object? 2.What kind of evidence can we give for the existence of physical objects? A) Other people have similar sense data? B) Common sense requires that there be physical objects? C) Cat Example? 3. No proof, for the existence of physical objects, but there are reason to belief in the existence of independent physical objects. WHAT ARE THEY ? HOW DO THEY RELATE TO INSTINCTIVE BELIEFS? Russell holds it is the simplest, most coherent account of our experience and there is no good reason to reject it.  It is and inductive inference to the best explanation. Because it is inductive. It is always possible that we are wrong. Nov/20 th David Hume – The Problem of Induction Hume is skeptical and an empirical Among this skeptical claims are the following : A)The impossibility of knowing an external world B) Doubt of the principal universal causation C) Challenge of the principal of induction Some Basic Concepts: Hume wants to differentiate the various elements in our experience and his empirical criteria are “lively” and “vivid” . 1. Impressions refer to those phenomena directly experienced through the senses or the emotion that are directly felt. These are the most “vivid and most “lively”. 2.Idea‟s (Thoughts) are the product our memory and imagination, and they lack the liveliness and vividness of impressions. They are what the mind abstracts from impressions. The mental image that corresponds.  Example: Hot sweltering Day . Breath taking sunset Thinking is a succession of images in the mind Important Distinction A) Material of thinking, ideas that the mind abstracts from sense experience B) Activities of the mind, organize the materials of thinking in various ways Thoughts seem to posses some unbound (unlimited), but is confined to very narrow limits (pg.250) No sensory impression, No idea Pg251*** The Problem of Induction –Hume Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding From a single experience we often make an inductive leap to all experiences of that kind. From limited experience , we generalize about future experiences. th Nov/25 - there is no rational justification for induction – does not depend on reason Probability, said Locke, is the guide to life. *All objects of human reason or inquiry are either relations of ideas or a matter of fact Relation of idea’s A) examples: Geometry/algebra/arithmetic B) deductive certain C) discoverable by thought without any dependence on what is existent in the universe Matter of Fact A) not ascertained in the same way B)our evidence for them is less than certain C) the contrary of every matter of fact is possible- does not imply a contradiction What is the mature of the evidence which assures us of any real existence and matter of fact beyond the present testimony of our senses? 1. All of our reasoning concerning matters of fact is founded on cause and effect. 2. That relation alone takes us beyond the evidence of memory and the senses (ex.252) 3.All reasoning about matters of fact are the same nature – they constantly suppose there is a connection between the present fact and what is inferred from it. Hence we must examine how we arrive at knowledge of cause and effect. 1. Not a priori, not by reasoning, but from experience ( a posteriori) 2. Cause and effect are discoverable – not by reason but by experience (p.253) “ Nature as we have noted, has conformed to some regularities in the past‟ Cause and effect are our reasoning concerning matters of a fact The foundation of our conclusions regarding that relation is experience. What is the foundation of all conclusions from experience ? Negative Answer (pg.255) A) not deductive reasoning B) not inductive reasoning Hence not on reasoning Lit of Our Time – C Hill 12/5/2013 3:45:00 PM Literature - representative novels, novellas, poems, short stories and plays - Within the 20th -21st centuries -Genre (French) Type Modernism -A temporal or historical category -Produced in the western world (1900's-1990's) -Scholars debate the actual dates of modernism and there is much disagreement. (1880-1970) -Writing produced in the 20th century -Many characteristics of modernism predate 1900, and many of its characteristics are present in contemporary literature -A revolutionary response to the cultural conditions of the Victorian world (19th century) 19th Century - Domination of natural world -Sexual repression -Patriarchy -Optimism & Progress -Capitalism -An age of European Supremacy - Morals and Social Codes -Protestant and Christianity -Reason and Logic Early 20th Century - An Age of wanting European Supremacy - Shattered Confidence and pessimism - God is dying / dead -Challenge gender roles -Sexual dynamic and Liberation -Moral relativism -Political upheaval and revolution -Conflict with nature -Seeking new ways of understanding the world/Challenge tradition Oct/10 th Verbal Irony – when the implied meaning of an utterance is in opposition to it‟s intended meaning Structural Irony – refers to the sustained suggestion of reversed meaning in a text. A major technique for sustaining structural irony is the use of a naïve protagonist or an unreliable narrator who continually interprets events and intentions in ways that the author signals are mistaken.  Araby pg22 – to generate a humorous effect  Araby = flee market, fair, bazar Epiphany – in literature, occurs when a character achieves a sudden awakening or expended awareness. The epiphany often leads the character to a profound new understanding and/or change of opinion or direction.  Pg26 – references to the passing or death The Metamorphosis The “Kafkaesque” Kafkaesque – Refers to a situation that is nightmarish, bizarre, endlessly and pointlessly, complex, and illogical. Other elements of the Kafkaesque include a sense of threat or menace, distortion of reality, and a psychological disturbance. The individual in the “Kafkaesque” is diminished and derided by his or her superiors and surroundings and feels a sense of isolations and disconnectedness. The Symbolist Novel - The symbolism of Gregor‟s “metamorphosis” Oct/ 15 th Transition into University Writing: Thesis Statements and patterns of argumentation into English Writing [email protected] A good thesis statement must: - A thesis may exceed one sentence -Never passive voice University Audience: informed Purpose: to persuade, explain or argue Basic Material: Argument Form: essay with a thesis, support, pattern of argument -An ability to present and defend a coherent “argument” -An ability to establish a premise and support it -An ability to present your thoughts in an “organized” and “logical” manner -Knowledge not only on WHAT the issues are but HOW the events are significant and HOW experts in the field differ in their interpretations of the events‟ significance - Knowledge of discipline- specific conventions -A basic understanding of key critical terms and the ability to use those terms properly An Argument is NOT - An information dump -A disagreement -An opinion An Argument Includes - Thesis - Evidence and Reasoning - Clear strategy (often implied pattern of argument) for supporting thesis -Awareness of limits and objections to thesis - A thesis statement in university is usually one or two sentences that:  Explicitly outline the purpose or point of your essay Thesis Paragraph - Includes “pattern of an argument” and/or a rhetorical strategy that indicates “how” you will develop and organize the evidence to support your claims - Usually identifies methods, theoretical approach, names or kinds of sources etc.  Try to avoid relying on the approach of dividing your “strategy” into three pieces th Oct/17  Symbolic narrative; Kafka‟s “supporting” symbolism a) Historical Expressionism - A movement in the visual arts and literature that began in Germany around 1910-45 - After 1945 expressionism evolved into many different forms; abstract expressionism, lyrical abstraction, neo- expressionism etc.… -Expressionist characteristics continue to appear in much contemporary art b) The Expressionist Aesthetic -Replacement of realism with powerful, exaggerated emotion and though -Expression of a profoundly troubled society into a nightmarish world -Image of the individual alone in an industrial, mechanized society - Dramatic, outward display of internal states - The goal of expressionism is NOT to depict things as they actually appear but rather to make them reflect the emotional content of their creator and/or subject c) Literary Expressionism The visible world (i.e. setting, landscape, characters) takes on distorted and often symbolic properties that reflect the contents of a central character‟s mind, or that reflect the overall psychological tone of a given situation Agency – power and will to make own choices Psychological Allegory – In a psychological allegory, the corresponding symbolic level explores human psychological states and thought processes nd Oct/22 Black Comedy Diminished characters play out their roles in a tragic farce that is simultaneously comic, horrifying and absurd. The subjects explored in a black comedy are often taboo, and usually have to do with human frailty ex. pg161 The Second Coming (1920) Historical Symbolism  A late nineteenth century movement in poetry and visual art ( and to lesser extent fiction, drama, and music )  The symbolist movement began around 1860 and was developed in the 1870‟s and 1880‟s primarily by French speaking poets Baudelaire, Mallarmé, and Verlaine‟s  By the early twentieth century, symbolism had spread to other European literatures and became another technique favored by modernists who sought new modes of expression  Symbolism is a precursor to other modernist forms , including expressionism Symbolist Aesthetic  Realism leads to a superficial understanding of humanity; symbolism rebels against realism by focusing on a larger truths ( not surface appearances)  Great truths about human kind can only be communicated through indirection and suggestion  Symbolism rejects the literal and explores dreams, imagination, human spirituality in its quest to communicate truth  Symbolists should reject “plain meanings, declamations,…sentimentality, and matter-of-fact description” ( The Symbolist Manifesto, by jean Moréas)  Traditional forms should be relaxed to allow the symbolist to create evocative, far-reaching symbols that are paradoxically extraordinary communicative and ambiguous Symbolist Poetry - William Butler Yeats “ The Second Coming” (1920) Symbolists Poetry - relaxed poetic forms ; a rejection of rigid and traditional poetic devices and structure; the symbolists preferred “free verse” to rhyme, repetitive rhythms , and traditional forms like the sonnet - the poem employs unity of effect and evocative and ambiguous symbolism to convey a mysterious and ambiguous truth - the symbolists often employ mythological subjects and allusions - symbolists language is powerful and evocative to achieve “synesthesia” Synesthesia :stimulation of senses to provoke an involuntary, automatic, visceral reaction in a subject -to bombard the reader, with powerful words and images to stimulate the senses to provoke a involuntary reaction - should give you an intuitive sense of the poem A symbolists reading of “ The Second Coming” found in package Historical Imagism -An early twentieth century Angelo- American movement in poetry that reacted to ornate Victorian poetic forms and more abstract modernism forms ( i.e. symbolism) The Imagery Aesthetic “Present an intellectual ad emotional complex in an instant of time” Three tenets of imagism: 1. Direct treatment of the “thing itself”, whether subjective or objective 2. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation 3.To compose to the rhythm of life, not to the rhythm of the metronome Imagist poems should provoke “intuitive discovery” of life Imagist Poetry - composition in free verse; the poem‟s structure
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