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ENV100Y5 (713)

ENV notes.docx

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Monika Havelka

-The environment is a legal entity -Environmental policies/practices need to be defined by various organizations -Socially/culturally/philosophically -Bill C-38 (The Fisheries Act) has been gutted -The environment was considered a non-living entity -Policy has to be grounded in good science -Environmental science explains interactions between humans between the psychical and biological world Science- a systematic process for learning about the world and testing our understanding of it. The accumulated body of knowledge that arises from the dynamic process. The Scientific Method – Testing ideas through observations, questioning and experimentation -Assumptions: The universe works according to natural laws - Events arise of cause (Cause & Effect) - Observation leads to hypothesis - The scientific process includes peer review, publication, debate etc.… - Uncertainty is a fundamental part of the process th Sept/13 - Communication about environmental issues is further complicated by differences in language and worldview -DDT concentration increases 10 million times -Good for farming and food control but it destroys eco-systems (Extreme pro’s & con’s) -Legislature banned DDT -Malaria (South Africa) case (pro DDT) -Perception is influenced by worldview -Policy/Legal Government vs. Scientific -Academic vs. Applied -Profane/Secular vs. Religious/Sacred -Affluence vs. Poverty -Industrialized vs. Developing Nations -Anthropocentric vs. Eco centric -Ecosphere vs. Techno sphere -Economy vs. Ecology Techno-sphere – Manufacturing, Agriculture, Transportation, Production of energy Eco-sphere- Issues and Topics, Basic science, Human impact, Challenges as a Global Community “Concern is allowed; depression is not allowed” -Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Report card on Env) State of ecosystems to support life (Credible) - Rapid, extensive changes in the past 50 years -Substantial and irreversible loss in biodiversity -Net gains in human development and economic well-being, but at a cost -Degradation likely to worsen -Reversing the degradation of ecosystems will require significant changes - Population, poverty and over-consumption are root problems -Human pop growth exacerbates environmental problems Sustainability – Meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs “Maintaining your consumption without eroding your capital” “Enough – for all – forever” Triple bottom line – Three Legged Stool Economic Leg Environmental Leg Social Leg -Good jobs -Pollution & Waste - Working Conditions - Fare wages - Renewable Energy - Health Services -Security - Conservation - Educational Services -Infrastructure - Restoration - Community and Culture -Fair Trade - Social Justice Sept/16 th -4.7 billion years Solar System -Model = is a representation The nebular theory explains the origin of the solar system -Interstellar cloud inherits elements from previous generations of stars -Rotation -Solar nebula is formed -Clouds of gas and dust - Rotational, gravitational collapse - Solar nebula -Condensation -Acieration -Differentiation Earth was a hostile place - Constant volcanic activity - Meteorite impact bombardment -Intense ultraviolet radiation from the sun -No “free” oxygen in the atmosphere -No liquid water -Radioactive decay in the Earths core The Early Atmosphere - Primitive vs. Secondary atmosphere -Role of volcanic degassing -Reducing (oxygen-poor) -Rich in Co2, Co1, So2, CH4, NH3, NO, H2o -Hot -Not hospitable for life as we know it The water molecule has chemical characteristics that support life - Liquid over a wide range of temperatures - Strong cohesion -Water molecules are polar “universal solvents”- Facilitates bonding w/ other chemical - Facilitates the transport of chemicals -Water-based process occur in a variety of conditions -High heat capacity -Stabilizes systems against change -Solid less dense than liquid floating ice insulates water -Transport to light -Photosynthesis is possible Atmosphere/ Hydrosphere/ Geosphere / Interacted / Dynamically - Surface cooled enough to sustain liquid water - Still Hot- water precipitated and re-evaporated Sept/18 th - Light is the process that happened inside a cell - Heterotrophic Hypothesis – Primordial Soup - Panspermia Hypothesis – Seeds from Space - Chemoutoph – Ocean Depths Primordial Soup (1953) Tested the hypothesis that conditions on the early earth were conductive to producing the “building blocks” of life. -Tried to recreate “early earth” conditions -Made al 20 amino acids, sugars, lipids Panspermia -potatoes fossils inside mars meteorite Hydrothermal Vents - Water emerges at up to 464 Celsius - Interface of hot and cold water suitable for information of organic compounds  Life originated from inorganic chemicals in the ocean  First life forms Fossils – remnant of along dead organism, pressured in stone Fossil Record – glues information about the history of past life -Not all fossils are “macrofossil” - Chemical evidence shows that life was here -Single celled bacteria appeared 4 billion years ago -Several mass extension have occurred Life had two main influences on the chemistry of the atmosphere - Build- up oxygen - Removal of Carbon dioxide Cyanobacteria use up Co2 and emit O2, Aerobic (oxygen tolerant) life forms Great Oxygen Event (G.O.E) - Biologically induced appearance of free oxygen (O2) in earths atmosphere - Seafloor sediments recorded - Sink – things accumulate G.O.E was primarily biological and geological - Ozone (o3) layer: function as UV sunscreen - Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation - 6 million year ago - Starting – 725 mya: super continent Rodinia -Starts to break up into smaller land masses -Increases favorable habitats (Continental shifts) Sept/20 th - Carbon dioxide is removed - Converted into Limestone -Long term storage (sequestration) of carbon dioxide in sediments and sedimentary rocks - Chemical composition of the atmosphere - Existence of water -Ecosphere and Biosphere - Dynamic nature of rock weathering -Dynamic nature of Lisothphere Earth has several characteristics that make it unique among known planets and uniquely capable of supporting life Chapter 2 – Tectonics & Hazards Rock Cycle – Heating, melting, cooling, breaking, reassembling of rocks and minerals -Dominated by surface process but driven both internally and externally Tectonic Cycle – Process related to the movement of large fragments Geological Cycles –Determine soil chemistry & replenish nutrients - Drive formation of mineral resources - Influence development of landscape and maintain ranges - Changes in atmospheric chemistry -Determine location, size and shape of ocean basins - Control oceanic and atmospheric circulation an
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