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Species Interaction

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Sept 23, 20Chapter 4: Species Interactions and Community Ecology Topics: Species interactions Feeding relationships Energy flow Trophic levels and food webs Zebra mussels: -Arrived in 1988 European ships discharged water into Lake St. Clair, Canada -Within 2 years they showed up in all 5 Great Lakes -No natural predators, competitors, or parasites -They spread rapidly and are an invasive species -Hundreds of millions of dollars of damage to property SPECIES INTERACTIONS Competition = multiple organisms seek the same limited resources intraspecific competition vs. interspecific competition inter : 2 diff species interacting intra: 2 of the same species Competitive exclusion or species coexistence RESOURCE PARTITIONING Species divide shared resources by specializing in different ways ie) the lions will kill the zebra and eat what they want hyenas and vultures wait and eat whatever if left EFFECTS OF RESOURCE PARTITIONING Character displacement = characteristics diverge to lessen competition and to eat different things if birds live on the same island they have a larger variety of beak sizes EXPLOITATIVE INTERACTIONS -ONE IS GETTING A BENEFIT AND ONE ISN’T Predation = individuals of one species capture, kill, and consume individuals of another species How do prey avoid predators? -Cryptic coloration blending into the env -Mimicry to mimic scary things random mutation that passes on -Warning Coloration to show that it is poisonous Parasitism = parasite depends on host for nourishment or other benefit Herbivory = animals feed on the tissues of plants Predators kill and consume prey -Structures food webs COEVOLUTION -Co-evolution = antagonistic species become locked in a duel of escalating adaptations -Changes in 2 or more organisms when there is change in one -Has been called an “evolutionary arms race” -ie) the slower antelopes will get eaten and the faster ones will reproduce....this causes wolves to adapt to catch the antelopes.....the ones that are the best move through generations -Herbivores expl
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