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University of Toronto Mississauga

ENV100 Lecture NotesFeb 3 2012 Flying Into Storms Dr Moore Lecture Greenland and its Effect on Weather and Climateo The Thermohaline Circulation The Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment GFDexo Atmospheric research with an instrumented aircrafto Atmospheric research with an instrumentedvessel Greenland Retreat of outflow glacier since the end of the Little Ice Age 1850 Current lateral moraine with evidence of retreat Older lateral moraineo Perhaps Younger Dryas Glacial erratichuge chunks of rocksGreenland Greenland Greenland Greenland The interaction of an air parcel with topography depends ono Kinetic energy of the air parcelo Work required to lift the air parcel over the topography The Froude Number Fr is the ratio of these two quantities If the Fr 1 air parcel has sufficient kinetic energy to do the required work against gravity and can make it over the barrier If the Fr 1 air parcel has insufficient kinetic energy to do the required work against gravity and cannotmake it over the barrierTypical Froude numbers for atmospheric flow in the vicinity of Greenland are on the order of 01 Therefore air flow in the vicinity of Greenland undergoes significantflow distortion as a result of Greenlands topographyo Air is forced to flow around not over Greenland Tip Jets One of the most dramatic examples of Greenland flow distortion is the occurrence of high wind speed jets that form near Cape Farewell Tip jets come in two flavorso Forward tip jets westerly flow from westeast discovered by Doyle and Shapiro 1999o Reverse tip jets easterly flow from eastwest discovered by Moore 2004
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