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ENV100 Lecture NotesMar 19 2012 Managing Waste continued Readings Chapter 18Several steps precede the disposal of hazardous wasteFor many years hazardous waste was discarded without special treatment o Public did not know it was harmful to human health o It was assumed that substances would disappear or be diluted in the environment o Now cities designate sites or special collection days to gather HHWThere are three disposal methods for hazardous wasteSecure landfills o Design and construction standards are similar but stricter than ordinary sanitary landfills o Must have several impervious liners and leachate removal systems o Must be located far from aquifersSurface impoundmentsDeepwell injectionSurface impoundments store liquid hazardous wasteShallow depressions are lined with plastic and clayResidue of solid hazardous waste is transported elsewhereThe underlying clay layer can crack and leakRainstorms cause overflow contaminating nearby areasIn deepwell injection wastes are stored undergroundWell is drilled deep beneath the water tableWaste is injected underground o Longterm disposal o Well is intended to be isolated from humans and groundwater o Wells can become corroded and leak waste into soilRadioactive waste is especially hazardousRadioactive waste is particularly dangerous and persistentGeologic isolationusing the absorptive capacity and impermeability of naturally occurring rock to block contaminantsMultiplebarrier approachengineering the facility to place as many barriers as possible both physical and chemical in the pathway of any escaping contaminants
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