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Lecture 11

ERS120H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Clastic Rock, Lithification


Department
Earth Science
Course Code
ERS120H5
Professor
Lindsay Schoenbohm
Lecture
11

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Sedimentary Rocks : Clastic, Biochemical, Organic, Chemical
Clastic
Weathering (breakdown of rock) and erosion (removal of broken down material) 
transportation (dispersal of solid particles and ions by gravity, wind, water and ice) 
disposition (settling out of transporting fluid)  lithification (transform into solid rock)
Clast size
owhen close to source – tend to have coarse sediments (aka gravel) – coarse,
pebble, and pea
oReduce size of clast thru transport
oSlit (0.004 – 0.06)
oClay (course and fine – 0.004m)
Higher transport = smaller rocks
Clast shape: angularity  sub-angular  sub-rounded  rounded
Depositional Environment :
Terrestrial = deposited on land
Maine = deposited @ sea level or in water
Lithification : transforms loose sediment into solid rock
Sandstone : conglomerate : contains by pieces
Limestone: full of fossils
Organic : remains of organisms
E.g. coal (actual remnants of organisms that die in swampy conditions)  w/ conditions of
little oxygen causing organic material to be preserved
Chemical: produced thru evaporation of sea water  crystalizes, leave salt crystals  evaporates.
E.g. halite (common salt)
Sedimentary Bedding: layers of rock  each layer tells you environment during that time
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