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FSC239 Lecture 2.docx

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Forensic Science
Ragab, H

September 18 , 2012 FSC239Y5 Lecture #2 Crime Scene Investigation & Evidence King of Crime Scene = Dr. Henry Lee What is a Crime Scene?  The Scene is simply defined as the actual site location where the incident took place  Classified: o Primary: - Where crime actually occurred o Secondary: - In some way related to the crime but is not where the actual crime took place. o Macroscopic: Big picture containing many small scenes o Microscopic: Small picture o Indoors & Outdoors: Objectives of Crime Scene Investigation  To recognize, collect, preserve, interpret & reconstruct all the relevant physical evidence at a CS.  Evidence split into 2 areas: o Testimonial: - Any witnessed accounts of an incident. o Physical Evidence: - Any material items What will the evidence do?  Prove that a crime has been committed  Link suspect with a scene or victim  Establish any key elements of a crime  Provide investigative leads  Identify criminal repeated behaviour  Establish identity of victim & suspect  Verify verbal witness testimony  Exonerate the innocent  Identify unknown substances  Reconstruct crime scene CS Management (CS Investigation Models)  Protocol Officers & Detectives  Specially trained CS civilian teams  Major CS team  Forensics Laboratory CS Scientists  Collaborative team CS Processing Protocol  Taken as follows: o Recognition or identification of CS  Inner Perimeter:-Inside of CSI  Outer Perimeter:- Outside of CSI (No outside person is allowed in) o Survey examination of CS o Documentation of CS o Collection & presentation of evidence o Reconstruction of events First Responding Officer  Duties of FRO (Safety first) o Assist victim o Search for & arrest suspect September 18 , 2012 FSC239Y5 Lecture #2 o Identify witness o Secure CS o Report any changes or alterations made to CS Securing the CS  Establish scene barriers  Assign a scene security officer  Initiate a written CS security log (Contamination) CS Survey  Walk-through  Note transient or conditional evidence & consider weather conditions  Note points of entry or exit & paths  Record brief initial observations  Consider precautions & equipment needed CS Documentation  Taking notes (Date, Time, etc.)  Video recording  Photographs  Sketching the CS – (Can be most important part)  Digital Imaging CS Searches  Different styles to ensure no items of physical evidence missed or lost  CS Methods: o Line or Strip Method:  One hand on shoulder of next person o Grid Method:  Covering Entire area twice o Zone Method:  Searching in quadrants o Wheel or Ray Method:  Starting at a specific point where evidence was found, and moving out o Spiral Method:  Search out from piece of evidence Beyond the CS  The following are to be collected and send to the forensics laboratory: o Victim Clothing o Fingernail scrapings o Head hair & pubic hair o Blood o Vaginal & anal & oral swabs (in sex related crimes) o Recovered bullets from body o Hard swabs from shooting (gunshot residue analysis) What is Physical evidence?  Any material object, introduced in trial, intended to prove a fact related to incident  Refers to any item that comes from nonliving origin.  While biological evidence alwa
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