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0205 dna profiling and fingerprinting.odt.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

DNAprofiling & Fingerprinting review for last lecture forensic serology -application of immunological, serology 1. identify the material blood group system genetic marker used 1. red blood antigen system 2. red cell isoenzymes 3. hemoglobin variants 4. serum... THIS LECTURE why DNA? DNAtesting agvantages over serological methods (only for blood vs any tissue) 1. unsurpassed discriminatory potential ( match to opther, probability = 1/300000000) 2. exquisite sensitivity 3. application to any body tissue 4. DNAis stable in comparsion to proteins Definition of DNAprofiling -the process of using dna for the identification of an individual. -DNAfingerprinting, dna typing and genetic fingerprinting genetic and forensic genetics -dna loci that are to be used for forensic genetics should have some key properties, they should ideally be: (a human = ~3.2 billion bases, over 30000 genes) -high polymorphic ( diff for everyone) -easy and cheap to characterize -profiles are simple top interpret and easy to compare between labs -low mutation rate chromosome \. gene\. Base dna polymorphic -length polymorphisms -squence specific polymorphisms (SSP) length polymorphism : tandem repeats -two important categories of tandem repeat have been used widely in forensic genetics 1. minisatellites, also referred to as VNTRs 2. microsatellites, STRs variation btw diff alleles is caused by a diff number of the repeat unit, which in turn results in alleles that are of diff lengths, length polymorphisms. Minisatetlites -have core repeat sequence that ranges from 6-100 bp -variation in repeat number -dis: large fragment of dna, cannot apply to most of cs evidence, or decayed human remains -dis: it needs about 50ng of dna, only 0.5ng of dna, 100 times less -dis: 6-8 weeks, long time -la
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