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Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

Impression Evidence—Footwear and Tire Tracks: Footwear Identification: Detection: Visible, latent, lighting, powders, chemistry Collection: Photography, fingerprint tape, dental stone lift, sulfur casts, electrostatic lifters, gel lifters Benefits: - Type - Pattern design - Number of suspect - Connecting to other crime scenes - Sequence of events - Corroborate versions of events 2D: no depth Removal or deposition of material (not significant) 3D: with depth Class characteristics - An intentional or unavoidable characteristic that repeats during the manufacturing - Ex. Tread pattern, type of footwear, size, wear pattern, defects. Individual characteristics - Unique characteristics - Ex. Cuts, chips, tears, foreign objects embedded. - Physical shapes, spatial relations with each other… Conclusions: - Fingerprint id – three conclusions, will match the person - Footwear and tire tracks – more variables that will change the impression. There is a spectrum for the types of conclusions Detection: - Ambient, white, oblique, ALS, laser - Fingerprint powder - Blood reagents, bb, potassium thiocyanate, iodine fuming - Black magnetic powder Photography: 1. Designation number 2. Date 3. Location 4. Initials 5. Badge Physical removal Enhancement - Fingerprint tape on acetate or backing card - Polivinylsiloxane - Gel lifter - Dental stone Electrostatic dust lifter Impressions in Snow: - Temperature - Types of snow Dental stone - Potassium sulfate to speed up Sulfur Photography: 1. Scale in the same plane 2. Lens perpendicular 3. Designation number Fingerprints: 1. Recognize and identify: training 2. Document: photography (perpendicular to surface of evidence), notes and sketches 3. Collect: intact and submitted to lab 4. Conclusion Residue deposited by friction ridges of the human hand If the damage exceeds the dermal papillae (includes a code which will regenerate in the same pattern), there would be no regrowth of fingerprints. Twins do not have identical fingerprints 1880 Dr. Henry Faulds published first paper in Tokyo - Alphonese Bertillon: anthrometric system to identify individuals, 1879 - Sir Frances Galton 1882: Fingerprints are unique and do not change through life. Classification system for fingerprints developed. - Sir Edward Henry: Alternative classification system (used today with mods) - Canada (1904) by Edward F
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