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Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

Forensic Pathology Findings (Toby H. Rose) Changes to a dead body - Observe, document (description, photography, histology) and interpret changes (understand disease, injury and post mortem changes) Post Mortem Changes (yellowish orange appearance) - Rigor mortis, livor mortis, decomposition (mummification—dryness, putrefaction—bacterial activity), Taphonomy Manner of Death - Natural (disease) - Toxicology: alcohol, medications and illicit drugs—accident, suicide or homicide - Injury: accidents, suicide, homicide Sudden cardiac death - History: sudden witnessed or un-witnessed collapsed - May be no previous history - Possible previous history of syncope, fainting and family history - Hardening of coronary arteries and blockage - Death of heart muscles (blood filling sac of heart) - White fibrous tissue (previous heart attack scar), may cause death - Thick heart rings (untreated hypertension and High Blood Pressure) - Missing aortic valve flaps (congenital bypass valve) - Aneurism Respiratory system - Lungs and airways - Swollen of the lining of the throat (allergy/infection) - Blocking of blood supply to heart - Hyperinflation of lungs caused by asthma attack - Empyema Central Nervous system - Meningitis - Subarachnoid hemorrhage - Intracerebral hemorrhage - Inflammation of the brain (meningitis) - Pooling of the blood in the brain (aneurism) Other - Gastrointestinal system - Liver (alcoholics sudden deaths) - Metastatic cancer - Volvulus (twisted area of the bowel) - Ruptured ectopic pregnancy Toxicology - Few naked-eye findings - Depends on results of post mortem toxicological analysis (blood and urine) - Burns on fingers (lighters), marks on inside of the elbow - Overdose Injuries Cardiovascular System - Deceleration injury (car crash), rupture of aorta causing rapid death. - Subtotal laceration (partial separation of aorta) - Head Injury - Hemorrhage - Dicing caused by glass windows - Sub-dural hematoma, torn veins - Bruising at the tips of the brain (falling) contre-cous - Tear of the stomach due to explosion - Hypothermia, beige stomach lining with spots Drowning and fire deaths - Was the person alive when the fire started or when they went into the water? - Drowning: hyper-inflated lungs - Fires: Smoke inhalation (soot in the trachea), carbon monoxide poisoning (replaces oxygen on hemoglobin—bright red blood), charring of the body. Homicidal deaths - Shooting - Stabbing - Beating - Strangulation Steps: 1. Finding out the death circumstances as much as possible, so examination i
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