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Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

FORENSIC DNATECHNOLOGY -forensic serology -application of genetic-markers typing -basic principles of human genetics Forensic serology -the application of immunological, serological and biochemical methods to blood, body fluids in legal matters -body fluids evidence can be associated with diff kinds of crimes. Forensic serologists conduct examinations of suspected biological evidence in order to 1. identify the material positively 2. establish that it is of human origin 3. try to associate it with particular individuals as possible source Sample characterization -2 types of test 1. presumptive test : good negative 2. confirmatory test : good positive presumptive test 1. simple 2. inexpensive 3. safe 4. easy to perform 5. very sensitive 6. use of very small amount of material 7. no adverse effect on the downstream DNAtests (presumptive) test of blood -a positive result from the Kastle-Meyer(phenolphthalein Test) color test is highly indicative of blood – a deep pink color -Leucomalachite green (LMG) – bluish green color -alternatively, the luminol test(3-amino-phathalhydrazide) is used to search out trace amounts of blood located at crime scenes (produces light (luminescence) in a darkened area) -microcrystalline tests, such as Takayama and Teichmann tests, depend on the addition of specific chemicals to the blood so that characteristic crystals will be formed (confirmatory) An antibody based lateral flow immuno-chromatographic strip (glycoproteinAantibody)-immobilized captured antibody precipitin test -once the sain has been characterized as blood, the precipitin test will determine weather the stain is of human or animal origin testing for seminal stains -the best way to locate and at the same time charactize a seminal stain is to perform the acid phosphatase (an enzyme secreted into seminal fluid) color test, hydrolysis of a-naphthyl phosphate--- brentamine fast blue --- a purple color indicates acid phosphatase enzyme (called acid phosphatase test / brentamine fast blue test) semen can be unequivocally identified by either presence of spermatozoa (haematoxylin & eosin or christmas tree stain) or of p30 (prostate-specific antigen PSA), a protein unique to seminal fluid rape evidence -the rape
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