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Lecture 6

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Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

Forensic Facial Reconstruction Background: - Digital modeling and animation - Background in anatomy, anthropology, and the development of the primate face 3D forensic facial reconstruction - Why do it? - What can we know? - How do we do it? - Who is it for? Why? - Possible vs. Positive identification - Positive ID established through  DNAcomparison  Radiological comparison  Odontological comparison  Fingerprint comparison - Positive ID depends on a possible ID and the comparative material it provides 3D forensic facial reconstruction - Means to establish possible ID 1. Create a likeness of the individual 2. Present the likeness to the public 3. Generate new investigate leads 4. Establish a positive ID What? - Forensic demographic analysis - Assume there’s a predictable relation (complex) between structure of the skull - Soft tissue of face is varied in composition and thickness in different areas Tissue depth markers and soft-tissue anatomy Tissue depth markers – clay sculpture Digital method - Still modeled by hand – no digital automation involved - The same standards of practice were used Laser scan skull - Half skull, reflect it in computer, view in multiple angles Who? - General public - 2 groups:  causal  prime - Causal:  may have known the individual as a passing acquaintance  Trigger recognition  Convince them to call the police - Rendering styles displays different facial expression - Prime:  Actively seeking a missing person  You cannot apply your own idea to the model (only depends on what the skull tells you) Forensic Anthropology Cases ForensicAnthropologists: - Search for document, recover, analyze human remains - Ontario Forensic Pathology Service & Office of Chief Coroner Ontario 2010  Forensic anthropologists if:  Burned, buried, outdoor, scattered, badly decomposed or skeletonized remains Forensic Significance - Role to play in medical-legal investigation  Focus of police or coroner’s case - Human bone  Only a ForensicAnthropologist can determine its forensic significance  If significant – crime scene  If not significant – police not requires - Criteria for forensically significant bone  Usually human  Modern individual  Time since death less than 60 yeas - When is human bone not of interest to police  Archaeological or historic  Medical/teaching skeletons  “Secret societies”  Associated with a cemetery - How is forensic significance determined?  Context  Where is it found?  Condition  Recent/fresh or old/dry  Associated objects Initial Phone Call – InitialAssumptions - Bone found at a cemetery - Could be animal - Emailed photo looked human - Typical cases of human bone in cemeteries  Eroded from grave  Incompletely exhumed  Vandalism The Scene: - Arrive in pouring rain  Woman walking dog found bone on Monday  Reported to police on Thursday - 9 fragments found  She picked up and took home  Came to scene to show where bone found  Pointed to area recently top dressed and seeded - Police saw no evidence of  Recent exhumation, erosion, or vandalism - Other
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