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FSC239Y5 (435)
Lecture 4

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Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

Forensic Identification Where Does F.I.S. Fit in? - Uniform Officers - Forensic Specialists - Forensic Pathologists - CFS - CrownAttorney - The Coroner - Specialty officers FIS Mandate 1. Examination, photographing videoing scene 2. Examination/Collection/Comparison of fingerprints and/or physical evidences 3. Submission of physical evidence to laboratory Forensic Science or other forensic specialists 4. Photographing of victim, properly, relevant to an investigation 5. Preparation and presentation of identification for Court purposes, and other procedures Securing the Scene - Keep foot traffic through the scene to a minimum - Restriction should include all non-essential personnel, including police and members of the press - Establish an entry path for additional personnel (Path of Contamination) - Protect evidence – DO NOT Collect Locard‟s Principle on Evidence - “EVERY CONTACT LEAVEATRACE” Types of Physical Evidence - Fingerprints - Footwear impressions - Tire Impressions - Tool impressions - Tool Marks - Hair & Fiber - Blood, Semen, saliva and other DNA If we have a Suspect: - Clothing and footwear may need to be seized for possible „trace evidence‟ - If the suspect used a firearm or is contaminated with blood and/or other evidence, DO NOT allow them to wash - Hair & body sample may also be used as comparison purposes - Injuries may also be photograph Arson - The deliberate burning of property for malicious or fraudulent purpose - Examples:  Defraud insurance  Eliminate business  Revenge  To conceal another crime scene Break & Enters (Attendance) - Officers shall notify FIS or all Brea scene - Attempt to establish POE - Determine if other attempts have - Identify which items have been handle - Assess the suitability of fingerprint surfaces - Leave printable items - If officers are unable to remain at the victim, not to disturb POE - Examine floors for footwear impression (lighting) Break & Enters - FIS does NOT attended premises when no authorized person is present to give consent to the application of fingerprint powders - FIS may attend to examine the POE so that the premise may be secured pending the owner‟s return Poor Surfaces for Fingerprint Examination - Clothes - Doorknobs - Light switches - Rocks, bricks, etc. - Pebbled plastic Bringing Items to FIS for Exam -If scene attendance is not required - make note of where items were found Package items separately - 1 item – 1 bag - Transport in paper bag to preserve any impressions Footwear Impressions - Tracking culprit(s) (inside & outside) - Minimum number of culprit(s) - Which pattern kicked the door - Links to other occurrences - Positive identification of footwear - Determination of shoe brand, model size, etc. SexualAssault Investigation - Obtain victim‟s clothing worn at that time in the incident (arrange for a change) - Package clothing in paper - Do not put wet clothing in plastic (DNAdegradation) - Advise victim not to bathe or shower Motor Vehicle Collisions FIS shall attend motor vehicle collisions in case of: - Fatality - Serious injury where death is likely to occur - Fail to remain accidents involving serious injury where a physical match with debris from a scene vehicle is required - Serious road hazards - PRP, Regional or Municipal vehicle collision may result in charges of civil litigation - Police pursuits with serious injury - When requested by the Major Collision Mischief - Typical mischief calls involve spray painting or minor damage to property - Attendance determined on a case by case basis and is based on likelihood of finding fingerprints or other physical evidence - FIS officers do not photograph property damage that can be adequately described for insurance claim purposes Industrial Accidents - Notify Ministry of Labor - Notify FIS in case of:  Fatalities  Serious injuries where death may ensure  Where PRP or the Region of Peel are involved  Where criminal charges are considered  When requested by Industrial/Accident Safety Investigators Robbery - Officers shall notify FIS of all Robberies - FIS shall attend Robbery calls where there is reasonable expectation of obtaining evidence Forensic Video Analyses - Generate still images from crime scene videotape surveillance systems - Seize video tapes, CDs, DVDs or USB - Date/time stamp visible on the seized video and note if it is accurate - Name & contact info of manufacturer - Deliver toAnalyst and complete VideoAnalysis Request Form (after hours drop box) Presuming Death - The first officer at the scene of a sudden death shall never presume death except in cases of:  Decapitation  Transection  Massive head wound  Decomposition - Uses extreme caution in cases of:  Gross rigor mortis  Gross outpouring of cranial or visceral contents  Grossly charred body The death investigation generally leads to a Mortem Examination The autopsy is an examination of a body after death to determine the cause of death What are we trying to achieve? - Locate, preserve and protect the evidence - To present impartial evaluations of the evidence - To present our evidence compelling for court - To hold the guilty responsible and to secure the innocent are proven Introduction to Fingerprint examination Fingerprint Theory: Friction Ridge Skin The surface of the hands and feet (volar skin) are covered with a series of ridges and furrows which allows for friction (gripping) between any other surface they contact - Commonly referred to as “friction ridge formations - The ridges form unique patterns and arrangements‟allowing them to be used as a reliable means of identification Palms of Hands (Palmer) Soles of Feet Fingerprint Theory: Four Premises Friction Ridge Identification - Friction ridges develop on the fetus birth and remain during life and even following death, until decomposition of the ridge skin. They are unique at a result of the growth rate and random fusing of the ridge unite (differential growth) - Friction ridge are persistent throughout life except scarring/disease - Friction ridge pattern and the details of frictions ridges are never repeated. Despite millions of fingerprint and the advent of computer technology, no two fingerprint ever been found to be identical - The overall friction ridge pattern varies limits which for the classification of impressions Development Timeline for Friction Ridge Skin - Between 17-24 weeks  Ridge become visible spreading across fingers from  Fingertip  Apex of the volar pad  Distal flexion crease  Convergence of the 3 fields at delta area The Epidermis - All cells are generated by the Basal layer then migrate up - The PERMENECY of a fingerprint is as a result of this regeneration process Twin Study – Uniqueness After comparison of 3,920 fingers of twins, no two fingers were found to be the same What is a Friction Ridge? - Each friction ridge is made up of ridge units fusing together - Ridges have one of three things they can do - Join - Go around - Stop Ridgeology - Human Perception - You see with your MIND through your eyes Fingerprint pattern recognition - Arches - Loops - Whorls Loop - Loops  Comes in  Recurves  Goes back out same side  Usually curving around a delta Whorl - Who
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