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FSC239Y5 (435)
Lecture 2

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Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION: OVERVIEW  What is a Crime Scene?  Objectives of CS Investigation  Crime Scene Processing Protocol  Crime Scene Documentation  Crime Scene Searches  Physical Evidence at Crime Scene  CS Reconstruction or Interpretation!! King of the Crime Scene = Dr. Henry C. Lee What is a Crime Scene? = site or location where crime took place • primary = 1 criminal act was committed • secondary = all remaining crime scenes • Macroscopic & Microscopic • Location = Indoor & Outdoor Objectives of CS Investigat ion To recognize, collect, preserve, interpret and reconstruct all the relevant physical evidence at a crime scene. Evidence can be split into 2 areas.  Testimonial evidence: any witnessed accounts of an incident.  Physical evidence: any material items present on the crime scene What will evidence collected at a scene do for the investigation? • Prove crime committed. • Link suspect w/ scene or victim. • Establish key elements of crime. • Provide investigative leads. • Identify criminal repeated behavior. i.e. MO = modus operandi = method of operation • Establish identity of victim / suspect. • Verify verbal witness testimony. • Exonerate the innocent. • Identify unknown substances. • Reconstruction of crime. (How not Who?) Crime Scene Management Crime Scene Investigatio n Models:  Patrol officers & detectives (1 responders, secure scene)  Specially trained CS civilian technicians  Major CS team i.e. Majors Crimes unit of police/detectives  Forensic lab CS scientists  Collaborative Team – not one individual specializes in all aspects UNLIKE CSI TV shows Crime Scene Processing Protocol Basic functions /tasks : • Recognition or identification of CS (boundaries /extent) • Survey & examination of CS • Documentation of CS • Collection and preservation of evidence • Interpretation of evidence 1 • Reconstruction of events Each scene is unique and may require a different approach to process First Responding Officer only ones to view crime scene in its original condition • Duties of the FRO: (Safety comes first) • FIRST priority is to - Assist the victim (Injured victim) • Search for /arrest suspect • Identify witnesses • Secure scene • Report changes or alterations made to scene Securing the Crime Scene: • Establish scene barriers • Assign a scene security officer • Initiate a written CS security log Multilevel sec urity approach: • Outer perimeter - general public kept out (level 1) • Bt outer perimeter and point of interest (level 2) - Restriction to official business (police) • Inner perimeter (level 3) Target area highest restriction – essential personnel only Crime Scene Survey: Walk-through in order to: • Note transient or conditional evidence & consider weather conditions • Note points of entry or exit and paths • Record brief initial observations • Consider precautions and equipment needed Crime Scene Documentation = ALL of the following: • Taking Notes • Video Recording • Photographing • Sketching (very imp!) • Digital Imaging i.e 3D imaging Crime Scene Searches • Different styles – each scene is unique • Same goal = no physical evidence missed or lost. CS Search Methods: Depends on terrain, size of crime scene, actions of suspect/victim  Line or strip method – hand on next searchers shoulder, walk forward at same pace  Grid method – covers area twice from different directions  Zone method – large area to be searched, divided into quadrants for smaller search teams  Wheel or ray method – several people moving out from a central area  Spiral method – one person moves out from point of interest Beyond The Crime Scene - Evidence collected for lab: Victim’s clothing, Fingernail scrapings, Head & pubic hairs, Blood (for DNA typing purposes) , Vaginal, anal, & oral swabs (in sex related crimes) , Recovered bullets from the body , Hand swabs from shooting victims (for gunshot residue analysis) 2 What is the Physical Evidence? = material object - intended to prove a fact related to the incident. • Any object that establishes a crime has/has not been committed OR • link crime to victim or perpetrator • Physical evidence = nonliving origin • Biological evidence = from living entity Types Physical Evidence at C rime Scene: Impressions, F
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