Class Notes (807,944)
Canada (492,936)
FSC239Y5 (430)
Lecture 5

lecture 5.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Forensic Science
Hisham Ragab

th October 9 , 2012 Forensic Anthropology Forensic Anthropologists - Anthropology techniques in legal context - Search for, recover, analyze, present evidence to court (human remains) - Human remains  Skeletonized  Badly decomposed - Main goal: identification – closure for loved ones  86% who are killed know their killer  Homicides are rarely solved if the identity of the victim is unknown Ethics - Legal rights/responsibilities regarding human remains - Burials not to be disturbed (ex. first nations) - Coroner/Police order investigation  Call in experts  Forensic anthropologists determine the forensic significance - If bone is found, in a context, call the police Locating/Recovering Human Remain - Where to search and why  Body dumpsite characteristics (not to be seen, not to be heard, fast and easy) – (ex. close to the road, downhill, accessible by flashlights, exiting features)  Search indicators (ex. plants – destroy whatever plant material there, root complex in vicinity, places where hole is dug with soft soil, animal activities - claw an dig where human remains, smell of human remains – roll in dead things, animal feces – indication) - How to search - Proper excavation techniques  Determine context (ex. dig a hole – try to conceal body intentionally) Forensic Anthropologists Ensure: - Greater accuracy in evidence collection  Hands and feet are on the ground collecting - Increased probability of collecting all evidence  Mostly search outdoor scenes - Recovery of the maximum amount of skeletal remains - Document relationships between objects (ex. document context) - Prevention of post-mortem damage to remains Analyses - Inventory (Minimum Number of Individuals)  Individual or commingled  Notice something is missing  How much of the body is actually recovered? - Animal vs. Human  People find bones all the time, have to define whether it’s animal or human - Forensic significance  Extremely important  Reduces police workload (time and effort)  Reduces anxiety of families with missing relatives Taphonomy - Study of processes affecting body after death (anything that happens in between those time)  Transport -> burial -> fossilization -> discovery  Environment (weather vs. erosion – acidic soil), animal and human activity  Affects colour, texture, and shape of the bone (ex. dogs like to suck on marrow, likes to chew off the ends – fingers) - Why study?  Consistent with tip/testimony? (Ex. did the person bury the body, dump it in the forest?)  Movement of the body (ex. by animals or humans -> move it to another location, movement by gravity vs. water)  Rodents like to chew on edges and sharp area (ex. eye orbits)  ELAPSED TIME SINCE DEATH! Time since Death - Importance – identification, testing alibis - 3 methods  Corporal  Decomposition  Environmental  Insects, leaf layers  Roots, artifacts  Habitual Activities  Date of missing doesn’t necessarily mean the date of death, victims can be held in captive for a long time before killed Identification - General  Sex  Age  Ancestry - Specific  Past trauma  Disease  Bone wear patterns  Anomalies  Stature is not significant unless victims are very tall or very short Biological Profile – Sex Determination - Adults only (children won’t have their secondary sex traits) - Population variation - Morphological – shape  Pelvis and skull (pelvis are a better indicator)  NOT GENDER, BUT SEX… people can modify their gender - Metric – size  95% overlap between sexes - Use both methods Age Estimation – Adult - Based on degenerative changes - After 50, the bones would be the same - Individual variability  Lifestyle, health, nutrition – age faster - Pubic symphysis (worn away) - Auricular surface (pelvis without sacrum) - Histology Age Estimation – Subadult - Dental formation  Matrix production and mineralization - Eruption  Emergence of tooth relative to gum/bone - Most accurate for prenatal and early adolescence - Long bone length - Appearance of ossification centres - Epiphyseal union (formation and fusion with the rest of the bone) - Closure of the “soft spot” on the skull Trauma Analysis - Blunt force trauma - Sharp force trauma - Manner of death = type (homicide, suicide, etc.) - Mode of death = method (sharp force trauma, etc.) - Forensic anthropologists NEVER deal with cause of death - Identify, describe, record trauma to bone - Angles of entry, direction, and force of blows - Determine if injuries are antemortem (before death), perimortem (around the death/at the time of death), or post-mortem Antemortem trauma - See healings - Rounded edges, infilling of wound - Woven bone - Porosity Bloodstain Pattern Evidence Check list: - Define crime scene reconstruction - Discuss the formation that can be gain from bloodstain pattern analysis about the events - Explain how the surface texture, directionality, and angle of impact affect the shape o
More Less

Related notes for FSC239Y5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.